History (from grech. Historia – the story, a narration about the past) - nature and society development. A historical science, a complex of the social studies studying the past of mankind in all its concreteness and variety. The history as that consists of a world history and history of locally taken states and the people.
(the Encyclopaedic dictionary)
From time immemorial the person aspired to self-knowledge and self-improvement through understanding of victories and errors of former generations. For really to learn itself it is possible, only thoroughly having studied history of ancestors, own roots. And the more deeply we learn the past, the processes, that zakonomernee become more clear occurring today, now in the world than their consequence, the future prospects are clearer.
For today it is for certain not known, when the annals of development of mankind have actually begun: whether since those times in which the thought again monkey took in hands a stick for application in housekeeping or much earlier.
Today at all all historians wish to be reconciled with darvinskoj the evolution theory, where the origin of the person reasonable that is Homo Sapiens ` and is conducted from ancient primacies what to speak about ordinary chelovekah, doing not wish to become related with grimacing primogenitors. The theory about gradual evoljutsionirovanii earth dwellers (and the increasing quantity of proofs to that appears) much more attractively looks.
Anyway, developed during the certain period of time of the characteristic, the tradition, the saved up cultural values of the people occupying globe, really exist, and to challenge this fact it is impossible. Archeologists, ethnographers and critics find all new and new certificates of former life and chronicles of the people occupying our planet.
Historians assert that the mankind as a whole and each ethnos separately is as a matter of fact an organism which structure the tradition which has developed during many generations defines, methods of education and the education consisting of attitude, religion, mythology, the literature and the art, developed in a certain time piece.
In general there is a theory of recurrence of development of the people and the states as, as well as any live organism, any ethnos takes place the period of a birth, a growing, development and ageing, death.
The Son of poet Nikolay Gumilev the known ethnographer of the last century L.N.Gumilev asserted that there is a cycle of origin, development, blossoming, inertia and falling of local civilisations in 1500 that is connected with separately taken ethnoses and persons directing them. As a vivid example Egypt can serve that, suppose. The greatest is no time the country of Pharaohs, monuments of culture and which architecture are gradually corroded by desert sand, possessed knowledge and abilities, advancing modern to it the world on many generations.
However the period of historical development of ethnos has come to the end for a long time, and today we only are surprised to greatness of pyramids and sphinxes protecting them and we marvel at the wooden pipes of the waterpipe laid during immemorial times of blossoming of Pharaohs and still remained here and there in beduinskih settlements. Egypt has passed all way from wildness of mesolit before development of agriculture with convenient irrigation canals, cattle breedings on extensive pastures, metallurgy (alloys) and to the developed industrial society with its economic, cultural and spiritual crisis.
The Human civilisation as the system of communications between social structures, existed from the moment of occurrence of a human society, it was in constant progress, in movement, developing together with world around. On a way to perfection of people has comprehended set of natural cataclysms thanks to which the states and ethnoses fell into decay and practically started to develop anew. We find a mention of it in annals, legends and the myths which also are certificates for studying stories of development of mankind.
For example, the archeologist G.Shliman in 19 century has decided to check up the literary version of existence of Troy – and has really found out a legendary city there where it was supposed. Or Flood descriptions – they meet in legends and myths of all nationalities, and these stories also are confirmed by archeological finds (at mountain Ararat two huge arks, one of them in length more than 160 m, are found by width of 50 metres).
Some historians are inclined to confirm, as if from the moment of a Flood great moving of the people in that kind which to us is known hitherto begins. The abundance of the local nationalities which have arisen at that time which is moving and mixing up among themselves, is described by Ancient Greek historian Strabonom. A civilisation basis then kept within both an ancient art, and culture of nomads. By those times there ascends occurrence of a slavic ethnic group.
The Nomads changing areas of dwelling: Scythians, Sarmatians, glories, bulgary, vany (or venedy) and even aggressive turantsy have formed subsequently sako-sarmato-dinlinskie ethnic structures, and also skifo-Sarmatian and paleovostochnoslavjanskie associations. During those immemorial times Proslavs ran trading and economic business with Parfiej and the Mussel (Central Asia), then have promoted and have occupied coast of Black sea. Thus, as a result slavjano-severovostochnoiranskogo interbreeding synthesis there was a central slavic generality.
That were pagans with the developed culture and writing which during later, Christian times has appeared lost. The civilisation rusov structure reminded antique, is faster even Ancient Greek: set rather big cities with the developed type of a state system (self-management) and craft manufacture, it became a tidbit for the nearest neighbours. Attempts to win Slavs any methods – diplomatic, religious, power – start with that, vedicheskoj epoch.
By the way, judging by carefully studied Scandinavian legends and archeological excavations in Central Asia, the ancient capital of Parthia is found out by Nissa, from invasion of the Roman armies on the northwest of Europe high fair-haired parfjane, ancestors of Normans whence migrated. Then there were also ancestors present postgunnov, francs and Anglo-Saxons, indov, a Turk and Persians.
The History from the most ancient times till today is mankind movement to progress, movement on a spiral upwards, all accelerated rates. Also it is necessary to know the basic immutable ways of its development not to be beaten out from the general rhythm, not to appear thrown out on a life roadside.