Successful revolt of 13 British colonies on the American earths became extremely important historical event, Great Britain has recovered in due course from loss of the possession, and on other party of Atlantic there was a new state - the United States of America.
After a victory in Seven-year war 1756-63 Britain has found domination on North American continent. Now to it belonged not only 13 colonies along coast of Atlantic (up to Georgia in the south), but also the earths won from Frenchmen in the north - a part of modern Canada. Nevertheless, soon new test was necessary to Britain - against its board inhabitants of colonies have risen.
In the end of XVIII century in territory of 13 American colonies lived almost 3 million persons, basically natives of Britain. Mainly small settlements prospered. Philadelphia with the population in 40 thousand persons was the largest city, in the second-large city of New York was 25 thousand inhabitants. Northern earths accustomed merchants, fishermen and hunters, on fertile grounds of the south planters grew rich, but the population great bulk was made by the farmers processing own earths and relying only on the forces, - they could play a pivotal role in the future revolution and to lay the foundation for the American nation.
the made demands
Inhabitants of America have got used to that to their word listen though between selective bodies of colonists and grandees from London often there were friction. The British government was too far and could not estimate really requirement of transatlantic settlers - and did not want. In England (as well as in other countries of Europe) believed that the overseas earths exist only for the blessing of mother country, their based and to it patronising, and, proceeding from it, imposed rigid restrictions on trading operations of colonies.
It is clear that in America possessing the richest resources with its growing enterprising population so could not proceed more, and the victory in Seven-year war has accelerated crisis approach. Thirsting for development of the new earths the decision of the government made in the end of war on creation of the American Indian reservation limited to a line of demarcation which to settlers it was forbidden to cross not to liking was necessary to colonists. Such decrees of the government, despite the good purposes, were impracticable. Moreover, threat elimination from outside Frenchmen meant that colonists did not need to hide behind bayonets of the British soldiers. These tendencies were designated just during this period when the British authorities under weight of war debts have been compelled to strengthen colonial oppression.
the Unpopular tax
Britain has begun that the parliament in 1765 has entered two laws: about raskvartirovanii armies and about the stamp duty. And if the first (demanding the best maintenance of the British military men) simply was not pleasant to colonists the second, entered an additional payment for registration of any documents and for any printing materials, including newspapers, has concerned all social classes and has infuriated people. Have lifted a head radical associations, like "Р№эют ётюсюф№". That here revolts there flashed, the American dealers have answered with blow blow and have refused to buy the British goods. Colonists were rallied by the new slogan: "-х= to taxes without яЁхфё=ртш=хыіё=тр" (in the British parliament). In Britain already during that time there were the forces which have supported colonists, in 1766 the Opposition has come to power and has cancelled the Law on the stamp duty, but in the certificate special by Deklaratsionnom has specified that behind parliament and henceforth there is a firm right to pass laws for colonies.
The Respite has appeared short. In 1767 the new Minister of Finance of Great Britain has imposed with gathering hardly probable all colonial import. In America excitements have again risen, Boston, capital of Massachusetts was their center. Here in March, 1770 English soldiers have trembled before furious crowd and have opened fire, having killed several persons. The message about bloodshed in Boston has shaken both parties, and they have crawfished. All gathering have been cancelled, except the tax to tea to that settlers did not begin to oppose, and is simple from lawful import of tea have passed to its contraband.
However, friction between the British crown and colonies did not stop, and the next flash has occurred 3 years later when the authorities have decided to help experiencing difficulty "+ё=-шэфёъющ ъюьярэшш" also have gone on a number of emergency measures, including the tax to tea. Colonists in every possible way opposed and did not allow to the ships to drop with tea cargo an anchor in the ports. In December, 1773 when the governor of Boston nevertheless has decided to unload one vessel, some townspeople, having changed clothes as Indians of a tribe mogavkov, have got on the ship and have dumped bales with tea in water.
British have there and then punished colonists for the demarche which has become history as "сюё=юэёъюх ёрхяш=шх": they have closed port until local residents will not pay off for the spoilt goods, but those on such conditions have not gone. As consequence, powers of local authorities have been limited, and by the governor of Massachusetts the English general Gejdzh who has received instructions to stop a distemper has been put.
the Day of reckoning
Has come hour of solving fight. At the power in Britain long, with 1770 for 1782, the office of lord Norta stayed, but actually decisions were accepted by king George III whose the obstinacy and short-sightedness had a pernicious effect on the politician of the country. During the same time Americans, very earlier, became ready to resolute actions and have confirmed their plan in September, 1774 on the Filadelfijsky congress which has collected delegates from 12 from 13 colonies. In April, 1775 general Gejdzh has given the secret order to the armies to arrest two radical figures and to destroy an armoury located in the nearby Concorde. Colonists have learnt in time about these plans and have sent riding to warn local residents about coming nearer parts.
the First shots
Having received a message about danger, leaders of insurgents have disappeared, but in Lexington where armies wished to disband a home guard, shots were distributed, eight Americans were lost.
Armies have entered into the Concorde and have carried out the task of Gejdzha, but on the way back continually got under aim fire of the colonists who have applied tactics of guerrilla war. The governmental parts have lost to 300 persons killed and after returning to Boston have appeared in a siege.
the war Beginning
In May, 1775 on II Continental congress originally revolutionary decisions, including declaration of the independent government have been made. From civil guardsmen of Boston and adjoining territories the regular army has been created, it was headed by the respectable land owner from Virginia George Vashington. Struggle which Americans named Revolutionary, and British - has begun War of America for independence.
Americans have made successful spot-check in May, 1775, having taken unawares two forts at the Canadian border and set of artillery pieces. Then they were comprehended by failure: the ineffectual winter siege of Quebec has put an end to hopes of a fast victory. During all war Canada remained British and served as base for their military operations. Simultaneously Englishmen have strengthened Boston and when insurgents have started to occupy heights on approaches to a city, under a command of general Hou have passed to counterattack. They have selected initially erroneous tactics of approach uphill, and have got under heavy fire of defenders. Positions of Americans nevertheless have been crumpled, but the victory at Bankers-hill cost Hou of its half more than two-thousand army and has installed in colonists confidence that Englishmen can be crushed.
Without waiting, while insurgents will tighten the guns grasped in forts to a city, Englishmen have left Boston in March, 1776 of Their attempt to conclude the peace treaty in what have not resulted. In America kreplo general desire completely to tear with mother country, and written by the radical which has born in England Tomom Pejnom a lampoon "ГфЁрт№щ ёь№ёы" has strengthened determination of supporters of independence.
Independence of the USA
Eventually, in July, 1776 the Continental congress has voted for branch and has accepted the independence Declaration which author there was Thomas Jefferson In the Declaration George's tyranny III was condemned and the right of all people on "цшчэі, freedom and aspiration fortunately was proclaimed. 13 former colonies began to be called as the United States of America.
After unsuccessful attempt, having taken hold of Charleston (South Carolina), British have thrown the forces on the north, and c July, 1776 Hou has gained a number of victories, taking New York and having put some notable blows on armies of Washington to which had to recede for the river Delaware. Washington did not possess special talent of the commander, and its people could not be compared to regular English forces, but this strong person never surrendered, besides, at Englishmen at war in another's territory problems with supplies and replenishment began to arise.
Washington has lifted fighting spirit of the forces, again having passed through the river Delaware and having taken unawares almost thousand garrison of the enemy at Christmas night 1776 However, the next year the success again was on the party of general Hou who has grasped Philadelphia. The army of Washington has strongly thinned that frosty winter.
Englishmen were brought by hopelessly bad planning. While case Hou went to Philadelphia, other general, John Bergojn, hoping to incorporate to it to the north from New York, has led the army from Canada towards Albany on a cross-country terrain, getting to ambushes of insurgents. As a result Englishmen have got to an environment of superior forces of the opponent and have laid down arms under Saratogoj. Inspired with successes of insurgents Frenchmen have entered war on the party of America. Soon to their example Spaniards and Dutches have followed. To the British who have lost domination on the sea, it was necessary to battle on several fronts. George III was already ready to make concessions, but independence was necessary to Americans only.
Anyway, Britain continued war. Its armies have left Philadelphia, but kept New York, on northern front fluctuating battles were conducted. In 1778 Englishmen have passed to new strategy, having set as the purpose capture of the southern earths with their plantations of tobacco, rice and indigo.
At the beginning all went as well as possible: Englishmen have occupied Georgia, have crushed trying to take Savanna the American and French parts, have surrounded and have forced to surrender large formation of the enemy near Charleston and nagolovu have broken general Gates - winner Saratogi - near Camden. Then the British ordering lord Kornuollis has decided to grasp Northern Carolina - and has made a fatal flaw.
Americans under Nata-niela Green's command have receded, in passing exhausting the opponent. Englishmen have departed again on the earths of Virginia, their staff has taken cover in Jorktaune, on the bank of Chesapeake bay.
The Americans before not so in coordination operating with allies, have this time collected the big forces round Englishmen, having blocked them from the sea the French courts, and have brought down on them gun-fire squall. Soon all was over.
the Parisian world
Englishmen have surrendered on October, 19th, 1781 In essence, war of Americans for independence has come to an end. The British forces remained in New York as early as two years, but operations were conducted against Frenchmen and outside of States. In September, 1783 the Parisian world which has recognised independence of the United States of America has been signed.