During the two-thousand-year history the ancient city of Babylon became capital of great empire, fantastic in the magnificence twice. And still vavilonjanam it was possible to reach considerable scientific and intellectual progress.
In comparison with the first Mesopotamic cities in Sumer and Akkad, Babylon was young: initial mentions of it concern to ХХIII to a century BC Political value it has got only after 1900 BC when amority, the union of Semitic tribes have grasped Sumer. For some years, Babylon has turned to capital small, but constantly growing Amoritsky kingdom which at board of tsar Hammurapi (1792-50 BC) became the empire which has incorporated all Southern Mesopotamia, and also a part of Assyria in the north
records testify To a difficult social system and riches of material culture of Babylon on the clay tablets found in a palace of Hammurapi in Mari. About it tell also most ancient of remained in the world the codes of laws published by tsar Hammurapi and traced on stelah, placed on all empire. Though the empire Hammurapi has broken up soon after his death, Babylon remained a great city. He has been obliged by the riches to a strategic arrangement on the river Euphrates that has allowed to supervise southern trading ways through Mesopotamia. But already then Babylon has got also the special status of the religious and educational center of all region. Having won Mesopotamia, vavilonjane and their northern neighbours in Assyria have inherited culture of Sumer and Akkad, have accepted akkadsky language, having kept myths shumerov and worship their gods.
However Hammurapi has changed the religious device, having proclaimed the patron of Babylon of god Marduka the head of a Sumer pantheon, as as he confirmed, such is will of gods. This status of Babylon became stronger up to XII century BC, when at board kassitov, barbarous tribes, its political power sharply oslabla.
At Navuhodonosore I (apprx. 1124-03 BC) and its successors Babylon became again capital of the independent state, but by X century BC over Mesopotamia assyrians have confirmed the domination. Within three centuries Babylon Assyrian tsars and their deputies corrected. They were thrown down constantly a challenge by nomad tribes arameev and impudent persons.
Assyrians treated kindly Babylon thanking its position of a sacred city, and the city usually supported them in struggle against tribes. However in 689 year BC the Assyrian tsar Sinaherib, not wishing to be reconciled with constant instability in region, has destroyed Babylon. And though its successor has tried to correct this certificate of sacrilege, since then vavilonjane tended to association with enemies of Assyria. Eventually, under leadership haldejskogo reigning Nabopalasara they have entered into alliance with midjanami, the Iranian people, and in the end of VII century BC have destroyed Assyria.
the New Babylon kingdom
Son Nabopalasara, Navuhodonosor II (605-562 BC), was one of the greatest conquerors in the history. The kingdom based by it was stretched from Suez to Iran. It has selected Syria and Palestin at Egypt, liquidated a Hebrew kingdom Judea and has destroyed Jerusalem. Like the predecessors-assyrians, Navuhodonosor II has broken spirit of the population hostile to it, force moving the whole tribes. It is most known to us from the Bible "тртшыюэёъшщ яыхэ" Jews.
At Navuhodonosore Babylon was in zenith of the glory. Archeologists find traces of such constructions, as terraces of Trailing gardens and the Great temple tower which have given rise to a bible legend about the Babel tower. At that time Babylon was almost for certain the greatest city in the world, and it some more centuries continued to admire. Besides they have saved up Sumer culture, vavilonjane have made a number of the important opening in area of mathematics and astronomy which have been transferred Greeks, and through them - to the modern world.
The New Babylon kingdom has suddenly stopped the existence in 539 BC when the city has been won by Persians under leadership of Kira Great. According to a legend, Kiru was possible to take aside waters of Euphrates which then proceeded through a city, and the army of Persians was included into a city on a river channel!
After falling of Babylon Mesopotamia has ceased to be a basis of great kingdoms of the Near East. As capital of a province of the Persian empire Babylon remained one of seven miracles of the world, and Alexander the Great intended to make its capital, however has died, and without having achieved calmness in the empire. Its successors in the Near East, a dynasty Selevkidov, have erected the capital on the river the Tiger, and in due course Babylon has come to full decline.