World history the World, world history World, a world history World history World, a world history the World, world history World history

ru by ua de en fr es

the Ancient Greece

From "Кхьэ№§ тхъют" - the period of the decline which has come in XI-IX centuries BC - Ellada has taken out seeds of a new state system. From the first kingdoms there were scatterings of the villages feeding the nearest city - the center of a public life, the market and a refuge for the period of war. Together they made the state-city ("яюышё"). Athenes, Sparta, Corinth and Thebes were the largest policies.

the Renaissance from darkness

At the time of Dark centuries, the Greek settlements have extended from a southern part of Balkan peninsula to the western coast of Asia Minor (present territory of Turkey), covering islands of Aegean sea. To the beginning of VIII century BC Greeks have started to restore trade relations with other people, exporting olive oil, wine, potter's and metal products. Thanks to the recent invention of the alphabet Phoenicians the writing lost in Dark centuries has started to revive. However the established world and prosperity have led to sharp growth of the population, and it became more difficult to support its all because of the limited agricultural base.

Trying to solve this problem, Greeks have started to send full lots of the citizens to develop the new earths, to base the new colonies, capable to provide. Many Greek colonies have located in the south of Italy and to Sicily, therefore all this territory began to be called "…юыі°ющ +Ёхчшхщ". For two centuries Greeks have constructed many cities round Mediterranean and even at coast of Black sea.

Colonisation Process was accompanied by sharp changes in policies. The monarchy gave way to aristocracy, that is board of the most notable land owners. But with expansion of trade and introduction in a turn of a metallic currency approximately in 600 year BC by an example of the next kingdom Lydia in the south of Asia Minor their positions have considerably reeled.

In VI century BC in policies constantly there were conflicts, to the power tyrants often came. "КшЁрэ" - a word Greek, as well as "рЁшё=юъЁр=ш " but at ancient Greeks it was not meant that the mode of the tyrant is rigid and antinational, and meant that the person has violently seized power, but could be the reformer thus.

Despite reforms of well-known legislator Solona, the power in Athenes tyrant Pisistrat has grasped. But after exile from Athenes successor Pisistrata Gippija in 510 year the democratic constitution BC has been accepted. This one more word of the Greek origin which means people board, that is the people. The Greek democracy was limited as women and slaves had no vote. But owing to the small sizes of cities citizens could not depend on the elite them of representatives as took direct part in definition of laws and discussion of especially important decisions at national meetings.

In V century BC in many policies conflicts between democratic and oligarchical parties flashed. Supporters of oligarchy believed that the power in a society should belong to the most well-founded townspeople.

Athenes and Sparta

If it is possible to name Athenes a democracy stronghold Sparta by right was considered as the oligarchy center. Sparta was distinguished by variety and other features.

In the majority of the Greek states the percentage of slaves to free citizens was low enough while spartiaty lived as "уюёяюфё=тѕ¦Ёр  Ёрёр" in an environment of surpassing quantity of potentially dangerous slaves-ilotov. For maintenance of the domination all people of Sparta have been transformed into a caste of soldiers which since the early childhood trained to suffer a pain and to live in barracks conditions.


Though Greeks were ardent patriots of the cities, they recognised that are one people - ellinami. They were united by poetry of the Homere, belief in all-powerful Zevsa and other Olympic gods, and a cult of development of the intellectual and physical abilities Olympic games were which expression. Besides the Greeks honouring leadership of the right, felt the difference from other people which they have without grounds christened "трЁтрЁрьш". Both at democracy, and in oligarchical policies all had legal rights, and the citizen could not be deprived of a life on a whim of the emperor - unlike Persians as whom Greeks considered as barbarians.

the Ancient Greece Nevertheless, the Persian expansion begun in VI century BC and directed against the people to the Ancient Greece and Asia Minor, seemed inevitable. However, Persians not especially were interested in the earths of Greeks - poor and removed on that party of Aegean sea while Athenes have not supported the Asian Greeks who have rebelled against the Persian board. Revolt has been suppressed, and in 490 year BC the Persian tsar Dary has sent armies to revenge Athenes. However Athenians have gained a convincing victory in fight at the Marathon - in 42 km from Athenes. In memory of a feat of the messenger who has run all this distance without a stop faster to inform joyful nest, the marathon is included in the program of Olympic games.

Ten years later the son and successor Darija Kserks has organised considerably more massed attack. He has ordered to build abreast the ships, having formed the bridge through the passage Hellespont dividing Asia Minor and Europe (present passage Dardanelless) on which has taken place its enormous army. In the face of the general threat the Greek cities have been compelled to unite. Army Kserksa went from the north, and the Greeks who have collected armies from different cities, have made the present feat, having put a barrier on a way of Persians. Tsar Leonid and it 300 Spartans have given the lives, trying as it is possible to keep narrow Fermopilsky gorge longer.

Unfortunately, the  destruction of Spartans has appeared vain as the Ancient Greece all the same has fallen under the impact of the opponent. Inhabitants of Athenes evacuated, and aggressors have burnt all temples in the Acropolis. Though one year prior to war the leader of Athenians of Femistokl has seriously strengthened fleet, by quantity of the ships it hopelessly conceded to superior forces of Persians and the Phoenicians subdued by them. But Femistoklu was possible to tyre out the Persian armada in narrow Salaminsky passage where it has been deprived maneuver possibility. It has caused a panic in the ranks of Persians and has allowed Greeks to break enemy fleet absolutely.

Solving battle

It is possible to consider Salaminsky battle as one of the greatest events of history. A year later the Persian army has been broken at Platejah, and Greece has found again freedom.

As Sparta was actually eliminated from emancipating struggle, Athenes became the indisputable leader in the Ancient Greece. In 478 year the Delossky alliance that has allowed Athenes and their allies to unite the resources BC has been concluded and to continue war. However soon the union has turned to the tool of political radicalism. Allies have been obliged to enter in the states democratic forms of government on the sample of Athenes and to finance the maintenance of constantly increasing fleet for needs of the general defence. After the end of war with Persians in 449 year BC the union has remained, and all attempts to leave it were severely stopped.

Classical Athenes

V century is considered BC a great century of classicism of the Greek civilisation which first of all is identified with Athenes. But also to and after that period other Greek policies have brought rather essential contribution to the Greek culture, having presented the world many masterpieces of poetry, ceramics and a sculpture, and also the first philosophers, trying to explain the Universe from physics positions, instead of magic and miracles.

the Ancient Greece And still the main achievements of human thought and art are connected with Athenes. Among the temples built up in the Acropolis the most well-known is Parthenon with its perfect proportions and excellent stucco mouldings. The first-ever drama products have evolved from the Athenian rituals in honour of god Dionisa. The Athenian philosophers, including well-known Socrat and Platon, the first have subjected to the deep analysis questions of morals and political ideals. Besides, Athenes were the native land of Gerodota of the Galikarnassky, first present historian (that is the scientist who is engaged in critical researches, instead of it is simple pereskazyvaniem fables and hearings).

the Ancient Greece not less outstanding historian was Fukidid which were not only the military leader of the Athenian army, but also letopistsem great Peloponnessky war of 431-404 years BC Disturbed by increase of power of Athenes, spartiaty have based the Peloponnessky union into which representatives of large Peloponnessky peninsula in the south of continental territory of the Ancient Greece have entered. The first collisions between two unions were irresolute, and it seemed, such position will remain for a long time. However a post of that as in Athenes the plague which has carried away a life of the leader of Athenians of Perikla has flashed, Sparta has won in this opposition. But though Spartans also supervised territory round Athenes (Attica), the city remained for them unapproachable as well-known Long walls surrounding a city cut off approaches to port Peraeus, whence in Athenes supplies were delivered. Thus, domination of Athenes on the sea has remained.

the Won winners

After a seven-year armistice war when the Athenian army which has imposed a powerful Greek city to Sicily of Syracuse, itself has appeared in an environment again has burst, and all forwarding case has been completely destroyed. Spartans have closed Athenes in a dense ring of blockade. The Athenian fleet has been crushed in battle at Egospotamah. In 404 year BC the starving city has been compelled to surrender.

Sparta and Thebes

Domination of Sparta also has lasted not for long, it was resisted by association of Athenes, Corinth and Thebes. In 371 to and. e. fivantsy under leadership of Epaminonda in fight at Lovktrah have inflicted over Sparta shattering defeat.

The Superiority of Thebes has appeared even more rapid, and in second half IV centuries Greece has entered very separated. In comparison with other states, Macedonia which was in the north of Greece, remained slaborazvitoj suburb, but it of rules talented tsar Phillip II Macedonian, and it had perfectly prepared army. In 338 year BC in battle at Heronee the Macedonian army has completely crushed incorporated army of Athenians and fivantsev. In Greece there was a uniform governor. The new era began.