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a fascism Gait

In 20 and 30th years of the XX-th century in Europe there was a political movement of new type. Any time seemed that the fascism, with its all-powerful leaders and militant nationalism, is invincible. .

At first sight, a result of I world war (1914-18) became triumph of democracy. Empires of old Europe have failed, on change by it parliamentary republics have come. But war serious consequences, and then and general crisis, in 1929 for some years paralysed economic, have deduced absolutely other forces on arena. One of them bi the communism October revolution of 1917 in Russia became which first victory, and an ultimate goal - an establishment world "фшъ=р=ѕЁ№ яЁюых=рЁшр=р" (working class), another was fascism.

At all furious anticommunism, the fascism has been directed and against democracy. All fascist states were the dictatorships operated one, not suffering any opposition party in which head there was one, the all-powerful and indefatigably glorified leader.

Force of fascism

Fascists took the power and kept it, mobilizuja support of weights by skilful use of all modern means of the organisation and propagation. To people inspired that the state (nation) - above all that the main values is an obedience and self-sacrifice, and war - the higher test of greatness of the people. It is characteristic that in through militarised fascist state the form carried all - not only military men and police, but also rank-and-file members of party and the youth organisations subordinated to it.


Chernorubashechniki the Word "¶р°шчь" it is used as the general term for the similar political movements which had in the different countries different names. The word has been thought up by Benito Mussolini's Italian ex-socialist who in 1919 has organised from the former front-line soldiers the semimilitary teams which later have named with Fascist party (from "fascio" - a sheaf, association). In the advancement to the power the fascism used a dissatisfaction of Italians with a war outcome: though Italy was at war on the party of winners, it has received the little from this, on what raschityvala. To the inhabitant frightened of post-war chaos fascists in their black form, free marching on the central streets, seemed the force, capable to return an order.

Game on fear

It was an important point of a policy of fascists never it was possible to them to receive the majority on free elections, however they have rather succeeded in propagation of the indestructibility and game on fear before communism. Mussolini has shown to the first, how it becomes, during well-known "яю§юфр on ршь" in May, 1921 - mass demonstration of force, and as a matter of fact a bluff, nevertheless, given right the occasion to appoint its prime minister of the coalition government.

a fascism Gait Gradually having suppressed any opposition, Mussolini in 1928 has proclaimed itself II Duce (leader) with unlimited powers in the one-party state. Many Europeans were impressed at that time with, how "фѕёх" has restored an order and has inspired to Italians a pride and purposefulness though partly it was the illusion which has resulted an interdiction for a freedom of speech. The image of Italy as the great power, created by effective propaganda shows and Mussolini's undoubtedly not ordinary person was the same illusion. In practice Italy was enough poor country on which besides Great depression has painfully struck in 1929.

To distract attention of the people from internal disorders, Mussolini in the mid-thirties interferes in Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and occupies it, having suppressed local population fierce resistance, then annexes Albania and, at last, takes the most fatal step - becomes the ally of nazi Germany in II world war.

Nazi (natsional-sotsialistskaja) the party has been created on the sample of party Mussolini and has come to power in Germany (1933) similar way. From the Italian adherents, however, nazis were distinguished by fanatical racism. Under leadership of the leader (Fuhrer) of Adolf Hitler Germanija in the late thirties follows the road the impetuous expansion which have resulted in II world war and, eventually, to defeat of fascism.

the March - up to the end

But to a victory it was still very far in 30th years when it seemed quite real that the XX-th century will be, as predicted Mussolini, "ІЁющ ¶р°шчьр". Germany and Italy, and to Asia imperial Japan which allied relations have strongly connected with fascist camp, confidently went to the planned purpose. Across all Europe there were parties of fascist sense, including the British union of fascists led by Osvaldom Mosli and "+ъёіюэ ¶Ёрэёхч" in France. Obviously racist modes have come to power in Portugal, Austria, Greece and Romania, and the ideology of fascism began to get popularity even in Brazil and Argentina.

a fascism Gait In 1936 the Spanish higher officers headed by general Fransisko Ex, have lifted mutiny against the duly elected government, supported "Ђёярэёъющ ¶рырэующ" (Fascist party) and more traditional right forces among which there was also a church. Volunteers from many countries of the world have directed to the aid of young Spanish republic, however nationalists Ex used powerful military and material support from outside Germany and Italy. After three years of bloody civil war has won Ex. Soberly enough thinking to be got involved in world war, it remained the dictator of Spain, in practice is faster patriarchal, than fascist, to the most death in 1975.

At that time the outcome of civil war in Spain seemed shattering defeat of democracy in struggle against fascism. But by its end in March, 1939 the new, solving conflict, all globe which has captured by a flame was already ready to burst.