From all people in the ancient time occupying the Near East, assyrians were the most ruthless. And though cruelty in relation to other people has allowed them to create powerful empire, finally because of it they have lost only.
The Assyrians, one of the most aggressive people in the history, achieved centuries domination over neighbours and, being in power zenith, have created the empire stretched from Persian gulf to the western limits of Egypt.
In certain degree their aggression spoke the geographical reasons. Assyria was in Northern Mesopotamia, on the rivers the Tiger and Euphrates. In the absence of such natural barriers as the sea or mountains, it has been opened for an attack from different directions and, hence, to survive, required strong army. Moreover, assyrians were enterprising dealers, and their country was at a crossroads of the basic trading ways passing through Mesopotamia, - a source of huge riches for any country, capable to keep control of these ways, - therefore, most likely, many of those wars which they conducted, have been directed on expansion of sphere of commercial influence.
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As well as their neighbours-vavilonjane, assyrians were amoritami, descendants of the Semitic tribes which left Arabia in the end of the third millenium both have won Sumer and Akkad. As the state Assyria it was generated by 1900 BC, however she had to worry some more centuries under the power of Babylon and a kingdom of Mitanni. Throughout this long and difficult period assyrians not only have managed to keep the consciousness, but also to establish strong military traditions. In XIV century to and. e. They have passed to regular captures.
Assyrians arranged attacks anywhere and everywhere, and in XII century BC tsar Tiglatpalasar I for short time has established Assyrian board in the Mediterranean. However their power has strongly reeled with occurrence in the Near East the new people, launch and falling of the several states and change of old enemies new, namely with arrival aramejtsev. In IX century BC Assyrian aggression has got especially severe lines, and the empire which structure included the most part of Mesopotamia and Northern Syria has been created. After the period of comparative decline, in 745 BC, Assyria has entered last and most rough stage of expansion of the domination when victorious commander Tiglatpalasar III has based a new dynasty.
Being entirely dependent on the army, assyrians have brought a lot of new in military art. They have passed to the iron weapon which completely has superseded bronze, and used the chariots harnessed loshadmi in fight. When they have deduced breed of horses, suitable for riding, they the first have entered a cavalry into structure of the army.
The Won enemies escaping behind walls of the cities, appeared in a siege until assyrians by means of the taranov and mobile towers did not make the way in life through barriers and did not begin mass destruction of all inhabitants.
Thanks to riches of the huge empire, assyrians had possibility to import a stone, wood and precious metals for an ornament of cities, such as Ashur, Kalah, Silly women-sharrukin and Ninevija. Each of great tsars built for itself a palace on which guard there were the huge sizes the statues representing winged bulls with human heads.
Assyrians subordinated to themselves the subdued people by mass export from the country of representatives of its elite (aristocrats, officials, handicraftsmen), depriving, thus, the management and independence people. So acute policy, and also well organised army and the adjusted control system have allowed assyrians to endure centuries of struggle and instability.
However some old enemies as, for example, aramejtsy, remained not won, besides, constant struggle for territory expansion has exhausted resources of Assyria and has pushed off it with new opponents.
In 630th years to and. e., at the time of board Ashshurbanipala (668-627 BC), severe civil wars for a throne broke off Assyria on a part, and the empire has started to break up. Midijtsy from the east and vavilonjane from the south have surrounded the weakened opponent. In 614 the old capital of Assyria, Ashur BC has been crushed, and in 612 the great cities of Ninevija and Kalah BC have fallen. Assyria has disappeared from the face of the earth.