Islam, one of the main world religions, was spread by force of arms on huge spaces from Spain to India. For incomplete century it has given a life of a new powerful civilisation.
In VII century d.C. the most part of Arabia represented the desert occupied by tribes of nomads-beduinov. However on the fertile earths on coast of Red sea and Indian ocean constant settlements have been scattered, caravan tracks through sand in cities of Syria and Mesopotamia (present Iraq) whence originated. On karavannoj to trade rare oases along trading ways, including small towns Mecca and Medina to which in the history of Islam could play a key role prospered.
Prophet Mohammed was born in Mecca, in a family of the cameleer. Having lost parents at early age, he was engaged karavannoj in trade on service at rich widow Hadidzhi. In 20 with superfluous years he married the mistress who in time by then twice to become a widow/widower. After a while its habit to wander on neighbouring mountains has born fruit. To it visions in which he talked to an angel Dzhabrailom have started to be. He has written down its precepts the verses which have entered into the most ancient part of the sacred book of Islam the Koran (Kur'an). In the final shape the Koran consists of 114 revelations, granted to the prophet for 21 years. In the meantime Mohammed has started to preach, asserting that there is only one all-powerful and omniscient god, the Allah, and the way to rescue lies through full submission to Its ox. "¤юфёшэхэшх" or "яюъюЁэюё=і" - in an Arabian way "шёырь" - became the name of new belief, and its followers began to name Moslems, or "яюъюЁэ№ьш".
In Mecca Mohammed has collected small group of adherents where close relatives have entered, but its doctrine has not received support in native Mecca. After all the city has been obliged by the well-being to crowds of the pilgrims, coming to bow to Kaabe - to a temple devoted 360 with superfluous gods and spirits which the newly appeared prophet declared false. Position became so dangerous that in 622 Mohammed with the followers has left Mecca. The traditional date of its flight known as Hidzhra, later began to be considered in the first afternoon of the first year of a new Islamic calendar.
Mohammed has found a shelter in the next Medina where has quickly gained authority as the intermediary in disputes and has started to involve all new adherents. Finally, inhabitants of Medina recognised it "…юцішь яЁюЁюъюь" also have made under his supervision some military campaigns to Mecca. After falling of Mecca in 630 Mohammed has returned home the lord, has destroyed 360 idols in Kaabe and has devoted a temple to the Allah.
Up the time of death of the prophet in 632 all Arabian peninsula has been turned into Islam. But to take care of the successor Mohammed was not in time that further has generated contentions, mutinies, bloodshed and civil wars.
First it was possible to nearest associates of the prophet to co-ordinate a nominee of the Caliph (successor), and the victorious epoch of the Arabian gains has since then begun. Tribes at enmity before have united now under a banner of Islam and have appeared the worthy contender of two great powers of the Near East of that time - Christian Byzantium and Persia (Iran) where the dynasty Sasanidov corrected and the religion zoroastrizma dominated.
The First campaigns for limits of Arabia have begun at Caliph Abu Bekre (632-34), but solving successes in gains have been reached at the Caliph the Lobster (634-44). In 635 Damascus, and year after great Arabian commander Halid ibn al-Valid nagolovu has fallen has broken the Byzantian army in fight at Jarmuka and has superseded it from Syria. Arabs have intruded in the Mesopotamia occupied with Persians, and in 642 have grasped also Iran. Falling of Alexandria has the same year topped a gain of Egypt which became a springboard for the further campaigns across all North Africa.
In absorbed set of the different people and regions of new Muslim empire which breeding military leaders corrected, internal contentions have not kept itself waiting long. The third Caliph the Osmanli Turk (644-56) has been killed, and Ali, the cousin and Mohammed's son-in-law became its successor. But also halifat Ali (656-61) has been saddened by breeding and religious conflicts which have led to civil war and murder of the Caliph. This time supporters of the killed have refused recognise the following Caliph Muaviju and declared itself "°шр" (group, sect). Subsequently this conflict has outgrown in definitive split between sunnitskim the majority and not numerous sect of Shiits. Though during the different moments of Islamic history there were also other sects, but division on sunnitov and Shiits till this day remains the main watershed in Islam.
With death of Ali has come to the end "ъырёёшёхёъшщ" or orthodox, the period halifata. At Muavii (661-80) Caliph became faster a secular sovereign with residence in great capital (Damascus, Syria) which transferred the title to the son or the close relative and rules through the centralised official system where skilled officials of not Arabian origin were typed.
the Uniform state
Muavija became the founder of the first dynasty of Caliphs - Omejjadov, - though definitively affirm it could only after 30-year-old civil wars at Caliph Abdal-Malike (685-705). With restoration of an internal order external expansion of Islam has renewed also. In the east the Muslim army has grasped Central Asia to present Tashkent, has won Sind and Southern Punjab (present Pakistan). In the west, having grasped all coast of the North Africa, Arabs were forwarded through strait of Gibraltar and have intruded in Spain. In 718 the Muslim army has crossed the Pyrenees and has reached the center of France where has been stopped in fight with army of francs under Round (732). This battle has put an end to advancement of Arabs to Europe.
The Islamic world as without any trading barriers from Spain to India has reached the uniform state at Omejjadah of the highest blossoming. Unlike other conquerors, Arabs willingly adopted useful experience at the subdued people, adapting for the needs of system of board of Byzantium and Persia, experience of battles on a land and the sea, and also art and a science. Generally speaking, Arabs tolerantly enough concerned to inovertsam, especially to "эрЁюфрь ¤шёрэш " - to Jews and the Christians dividing with Moslems the general bible tradition. According to Islam, Ibragim (Avraam), Musa (Moisej) and Isa (Jesus) were the original prophets which works were finished by Mohammed. However, not Muslim people of new empire paid to the tax state from which Moslems have been released that finally promoted the reference of their considerable part in Islam. As any transfers of the Koran from the Arabian original have been forbidden, the new turned Moslems quickly acquired language and as a result Arabs and the people won by them gradually merged in a uniform generality. From here "рЁрсюь" began to name any person speaking in an Arabian way, and all Islamic world divided uniform belief, language and culture.
But the same religious tolerance has served one of the reasons of falling of a dynasty Omejjadov. Neglect Omejjadov the debt to turn into Islam of citizens-inovertsev caused the increasing indignation. All these religious excitements along with discontent of Arabs of Mesopotamia and Iran the power of Damascus became soil for the mutiny lifted in 747 by the descendant of the uncle of prophet Abu al-Abbasom. In total for three years it has dethroned Omejjadov which have been cut ruthlessly out. The unique escaped member of this sort was Abd al-Rahman which ran to Spain and has based the independent dynasty prospering almost of 300 years. The dynasty Abbasidov has left Damascus and has constructed new capital Bagdad which has soon turned to a huge city with the million population in Mesopotamia. Now the center halifata Abbasidov has moved to richer east regions where all was more strongly shown the Persian influence. During this period the reference inovertsev in Islam, and the islamsko-Arabian character halifata was in every possible way encouraged has received brighter expression. Eventually, only Iran, despite Islam acceptance, has kept own language farsi and cultural originality.
the Brilliant civilisation
Islam has entered a new stage of development on which he not only continued to study at other cultures, but also has created own great civilisation. Caliph Al-Mansur has founded "-юь яючэрэш " where scientists translated Ancient Greek works on philosophy and medicine and seized the Indian mathematics, including "рЁрсёъшьш" in figures which we use to this day. Islamic thinker Ibn-Sina became one of the most influential philosophers and medical authorities of the Middle Ages. In Europe where it knew under a name of Avitsenna, its treatises used wide popularity. The mathematician al-Horezmi was the pioneer of algebra (the name is taken from the Arabian language), and the great Persian the Lobster Khayyam differed a rare combination of talents of the mathematician, the astronomer and the poet. The highest tops the literature and art have reached.
In cities domes of mosques and palaces with the walls decorated with glazed tiles shone. Masters created amazing metal wares and the ceramics, covered with intricate patterns from vegetative motives, an interlacing of lines and elegant Arabian vjazju. Along with precious scatterings of poetry across all Asia the national legends which have become by an original ornament of the Islamic world and in due course entered into classical meeting of fairy tales "К№ё ёр and one эюёі" were by word of mouth transferred; (in the West it name "Рърчъш Arabian эюёхщ") . The Islamic science and culture throughout many centuries far advanced Christian Europe which has gathered from the Arabian sources many scientific, philosophical, mathematical and medical knowledge, including paper know-how. Blossoming of an Islamic civilisation proceeded, despite of that after incomplete century of board Abbasidov huge uncontrollable halifat has started to break up. Having made the East a basis of the power, they have soon lost the control over the North Africa where the dynasty has affirmed as new capital Cairo Fatimidov (909-1171).