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Civilizations central and the South America

the Ancient people of America developed almost in full isolation from other world and, in particular, for this reason have made few technical opening. However they have created civilisations with huge cities and have achieved outstanding successes in art and sciences.

The First Americans, apparently, have arrived on continent from Asia 20-40 thousand years ago. Despite all diligence of archeologists to date this event it is impossible more precisely. About 40 thousand years ago person it was settled on all other manned earths of a planet, therefore it is quite probable that then he has got over and through an isthmus still connecting during that time Siberia and Alaska.

Development in isolation

This isthmus existed during last glacial age when in huge polar caps such quantity of water has been held down by ice that level of world ocean was much more low, than now. The hunting tribes which small groups passed to other continent in search of extraction were trailblazers of America, apparently. For thousand years they were settled on all continent and somewhere to 9000 BC have reached Tierra del Fuego.

After approximately one thousand years ice caps have thawn, the isthmus has disappeared and the Bering strait which has separated Asia from America was formed. Though later ancestors of Eskimos have reached Alaska by boats and have occupied the inhospitable Far North and Greenland, wide oceans have for a long time separated inhabitants of America from other world. This fact helps to explain and overdue origin of a civilisation on continent, and why ancient Americans have not managed to make such vital technical opening, as, say, a wheel or alphabetic writing. Moreover, a horse, centuries serving to the most valuable "ьх§рэшчьюь" in Europe and Asia, it was unknown to ancient Americans until in XVI century it was delivered by the Spanish conquistadors. Owing to these reasons of a civilisation of America considerably differed from civilisations of Europe and Asia, and in the absence of any monuments of writing much is shrouded to this day by a secret cover.


Ancient Americans

Safely having crossed Atlantic, Columbus has been convinced that has reached India and consequently has named local residents "шэфхщчрьш". This name and was fixed to them, despite an appreciable error. Actually the American Indians were not even the uniform people. They had many common features - a swarty skin, high cheekbones, black hair and eyes, a blood chemical compound. However they strikingly differed from each other growth and appearance, spoke on hundreds languages and have created wide variety of customs and beliefs. Between "шэфхщёъшьш" tribes was even less similarities, than between any two European people at any moment of their history. The matter is that the wide spectrum of an environment aggravated these distinctions, forcing Indians to adapt for a life in mountains, on plains and in bogs, on cold open spaces of tundra and in tropical jungle. Indians of the North America (modern Canada and the USA) became farmers in the east, hunters on suburbs of Great Plains and fishermen in California. Further to the south the settled way of life in the agricultural settlements, based on crop cultivation was gradually generated. It finally has impulsed origin of advanced cultures of an antiquity. Some from all of them still prospered, when in 1492 Columbus has reached New World coast.


the Civilization olmekov

The culture olmekov in East Mexico was the First of known civilisations of Central America. Its center was in the extensive region covered with rainforests and bogs. In these mysterious edges hostile to the person the grandiose religious centers have grown. At tops of earthen hills there is no time majestic temples towered. However, despite huge scales, these centers were not the present cities for though for participation in religious rituals crowds of people here gathered, their resident population consisted of several hundreds priests and temple attendants.

the Civilization olmekov In the course of time wooden temples have disappeared from the face of the earth, but enormous stone sculptures olmekov have remained up to now along with smaller sculptures from a nephrite, basalt and obsidiana. Ancient sculptors, as a rule, represented furious beings - jaguars, eagles and sharks, quite often giving them human lines and creating directing at simple Indians horror fantastic images.

Definitively having generated by 1200 BC, the culture olmekov has extended till 800 BC almost to all Central America and Pacific coast, but later 400 years was lost for the unknown reason. However in the latest centuries monumental constructions, fantastic sculptures and gods olmekov continually emerged from a non-existence, testifying that in Central America long time there was a mighty cultural tradition. On the other hand, it was not revealed any written monument olmekov though soon after the termination olmekskogo the period the pictographic letter, apparently, has been invented.

Some centuries later, somewhere about 150 d.C., have been erected the first present city of America. Ruins of Teotiuakana lie in 30 miles to the northeast from present Mexico City. This fertile plateau of a valley of Mexico City northern part of territory olmekov was no time. What people lived in this city, and remain to unknown persons, but it was the majestic complex of pyramids, palaces, apartment houses and workshops with a regular rectangular lay-out of quarters. Till now towers over okrugoj its largest monument - a 60-metre pyramid of the Sun. Teotiuakan was, undoubtedly, large shopping center and, probably, sacred city for emperors of Aztecs after centuries made there pilgrimage. And still it till this day remained a riddle as has not remained any written certificates of its basis, history or  destruction apprx. 700 d.C.

It is known about a great civilisation majja as this tribe used the form of the pictographic letter accessible to understanding Much more. It is embodied in the inscriptions which have immortalised some dates and memorable episodes of their stories. Majja lived on peninsula Yucatan (Mexico), the huge ledge of a land running into Caribbean sea. As well as during an epoch olmekov, the most part of this territory has been covered by dense rainforests, therefore their cutting down and clearing of the earths demanded extreme work. When the culture majja has fallen into decay, their cities have grown with jungle and remained in obscurity, have not been again opened yet presently, and some of them still wait for the pioneers.


Achievements majja

Capital majja Chichen-Itsa and other cities were, undoubtedly, are created vysokoorganizovannym by a society in which the religious cult undividedly dominated. As the certificate to that is served even by achievements majja in the mathematician and astronomy. achievements majja These sciences were almost exclusively are placed in the service of drawing up of the difficult calendars calculated on thousand of years - an obvious sign of that majja were afflicted with time concept, giving it special religious sense. At the same time majja have not left especially outstanding monuments of the spirituality. Handicraftsmen of these people continued the general for Central America traditions, with the greatest skill representing supernatural beings in the form of terrible fantastic hybrids of the classical period (300-800 d.C.) And using thus the elementary stone tools. Later, it is probable under the influence of come of Mexico toltekskih conquerors, majja have adopted custom of bringing of captives in a victim to gods. In due course the territory of dissemination of culture majja was more and more narrowed, blossoming was replaced by slow fading,

But in it the life still glimmered until Spaniards definitively have not destroyed it in XVI century. In the meantime wars and invasions of different tribes went the turn. On change toltekam Aztecs have come to a valley of Mexico City. First, approximately in 1300, newcomers were fixed only on a small plot of land, but within two next centuries they have managed to subdue tribes of almost all Central America. Their expansion still proceeded, when the Spaniards who have arrived to a New World have opened "рч=хъёъѕ¦ чштшышчрчш¦". However Aztecs only have enriched with the little ancient culture, having become history more as unsurpassed soldiers.


Bloody religion of Aztecs

Bloody religion of Aztecs Aztecs professed the cult of bloody sacrifices reaching monstrous extreme measures when for thousand people were once sacrificed. The requirement of Aztecs for constant inflow of captives for fulfilment of bloody rituals has made their aggressive people constantly ready to fight. The tribes subdued by Aztecs hated the misters. Therefore, despite scales and power, the empire of Aztecs, in effect, was rather fragile. Creation in the north has practically coincided with expansion of Aztecs on time in the South America empires inkov which to present measures was stretched from Northern Ecuador to the Central Chile. Like Aztecs, inki have appeared in the Andes in the end of the long period of development. Andsky tribes cultivated the land, running huge step terraces into slopes of mountains, strengthening their stone walls and building difficult irrigating systems. They also made colourful fabrics and ceramics, amazing ornaments of gold, silver and other metals.

Besides such high-mountainous civilisations as empire Tiauanako (apprx. 500-1000 d.C.), in this region a number of coastal cultures, for example, to Urine and Chimu prospered also.

Having inherited centuries-old traditions of local tribes, inki nevertheless have created own state with a rigid regulation up to the slightest trifles. The will of emperor Sapa Inka everywhere was implicitly carried out. Thousand miles of excellent roads connected the remote possession; to conduct were delivered by the fast walkers replacing each other on all transit. Though at inkov there was no writing, detailed orders and data were fixed by special system of small knots on multi-coloured threads, or "ъшяѕ".


Iron board inkov

The Simple people were under rigid management and the control. People were not authorised to get over in other dwelling, they paid heavy taxes, carried out military and labour duties. On the other hand, the government and effective system of distribution of the foodstuffs did a life concerning safe.

Inki were great architects to what ruins of their ancient capital Cuzco and the city of Machu Picchu hidden in mountains testify. Stone blocks are squared and adjusted without a limy solution with such accuracy that between them will not push even a knife blade.

It is Few doubts that about 1000 d.C. the group of Vikings has reached coast of America and has for a short while lodged or has set up camp on Newfoundland. But this episode "эх had яЁюфюыцхэш ". Christopher Columbus's travel through Atlantic in 1492 for occurrence of Europeans in a New World has led to catastrophic consequences for Aztecs, inkov and all other American Indians was Absolutely other business.