Religionism and cruelty, nobleness and thirst of a profit - all these feelings have served its purpose in a drama history of crusades, the military expeditions sent from medieval Europe to win Palestin and Syria for the Christian world.
By XI century Christian Europe, having endured a number of the sharpest crises, has started to expand the possession, and among its enemies, compelled to concede the earths, there were also Moslems-Arabs in Spain and Sicily. Then, suddenly enough, any supernatural impulse has pushed Europeans to a gain of East Mediterranean far and under control to Moslems in which heart lay "Рт =р чхьы " esteemed by Christians as a place where veins the Christ from Nazareth also has died. Leaving on sacred war, knights "сЁрыш on itself ъЁхё=" also became crusaders.
the Call for help
The call for help with which the Byzantian emperor Alexey I has addressed to the Pope was One of the crusade reasons. Hundreds years Byzantium was a stronghold of Christianity against militant Islam, but in 1071, after defeat at Mantsikerte, it has lost the most part of Asia Minor (limits of modern Turkey), always were the vital source of manpower resources and means. In the face of danger of death proud Byzantium has been compelled to ask about the help.
Not Arabs, and Turks-seldzhuki - the furious nomads who accepted Islam and have become by the main force in the Near East were Winners in fight at Mantsikerte. While Arabs were rather tolerant to the Christian pilgrims, new governors began to make at once their difficulties. It became one more reason of an appeal to a crusade with which daddy Urban II has acted in 1095 in Klermone. The help to Byzantines has receded into the background in comparison with returning of the Sacred earth where as declared Urban, murders, robberies and capture of new possession as victims become "эхтхЁэ№х" will be admissible; to which on bolshee have nothing and to count.
Appeals of the Pope, Peter Pustynnika's violent sermons and other religious fanatics have caused unknown lifting. In different places of France, Germany and Italy campaigns were hastily equipped. Besides, thousand people spontaneously gathered in groups and moved forward, plundering, killing Jews and sowing chaos on the way.
Having swept across Europe under Peter Pustynnika's leadership and the knight by a nickname Walter Bezdenezhnyj, crusaders, eventually, have reached capitals of Byzantium of Constantinople. Disturbed emperor Alexey has hastily forwarded them to Asia Minor where all of them to one were interrupted by Turks.
Similar explosion of a mass hysteria has occurred more than century later when crowds of young preachers from France and Germany have gone in so-called. The Crusade of children. The campaign has carried away hundreds children's lives, and anybody has not reached the Sacred earth.
Really the first crusade has begun, when groups of knights and soldiers under notable soldiers, such as Rajmond Toulouse, Gottfried Bulonsky and Boemund Tarentsky, on the sea and overland have reached Constantinople. It is important to remember that many of them had sonorous titles, but not ground possession, and were therefore full of determination to catch them in the east. Emperor Alexey was not too glad to these people, after all he hoped for arrival of obedient mercenaries, instead of these independent, unpredictable and, possibly, dangerous "трЁтрЁют". The weak place of this enterprise was in the mistrust which very quickly has arisen between Greeks and "¶Ёрэърьш" - a name which both Greeks, and Moslems named crusaders irrespective of their nationality.
Thanks to thin maneuvering, Alexey has persuaded crusaders to swear that they recognise as its emperor of all before the earths belonging to Byzantium which it will manage to be won at seldzhukov. Crusaders cunning have compelled to keep a word at a siege of Nikei, but all has been quickly forgotten, when the historical march-throw through Asia Minor, in fight has begun at Dorilee (1097) crowned the first the victory.
Though the reservation of crusaders was a hard burden, especially in a hot climate, it gave to an attacking cavalry force and power of an iron fist. However, the light cavalry a Turk left from direct collision, preferring to turn and wind, holding a distance and firing at crusaders from onions. But this balance was shaky as arrows a Turk could cause only limited loss while among crusaders was a lot of professional arbaletchikov, whose weapon had much bigger range and destructive power. Hence, the result of any collision depended on strategy, the time factor, and also strict one-man management - things in which the feudal army of Europeans usually conceded as its leaders concerned to each other with jealousy, and knights the personal glory, than success of all army more worried.
the States of crusaders
With the time factor to the first crusaders has especially carried - they have appeared, when in possession seldzhukov there was no unity. In 1098 francs have grasped Antiohiju, preliminary having broken the strong Turkish army sent on a gain to a city. A year has fallen later also Jerusalem. It was great achievement of Christians which they have noted a mass slaughter.
The campaign Purpose has been reached, and many crusaders have come back home. Remained continued to be at war along east coast of the Mediterranean where four states of crusaders, eventually, have been based: the Jerusalem kingdom, a county of Tripoli, a princedom of Antiohija and a county of Edessa. Gottfried Bulonsky has been selected by the first governor of the Jerusalem kingdom. At the peak of the glory it reached Aqaba on Red sea, besides, it became the actual governor and other won territories.
the States of crusaders never stayed in safety. Even in blossoming it was not possible to them to move apart the borders to natural section, desert that would facilitate defence of territories. Threat from outside a Turk, keeping the control over such key cities, as Aleppo and Damascus constantly remained. Even in the own earths crusaders remained not numerous and dispersed class of the feudal lords, correcting the Muslim population, whose loyalty was rather doubtful. Crusaders hardly would hold on long without the aid of two specially generated military awards - knights of the Temple (tamplierov) and ioannitov (gospitalerov). As well as monks, members of awards vowed to live in poverty, chastity and humility. At the same time it were the soldiers, obliged to defend the Sacred earth and to battle with "эхтхЁэ№ьш". In the end of 1120th years Turks under leadership of Zengi from Mosul managed to achieve certain unity and to stop advancement of crusaders. In 1144 crusaders have lost Edessu - the state most remote and opened for an attack. All it has pushed Europeans to the beginning of new campaign. But 2nd Crusade under leadership of French king Louis VII and the emperor of Sacred Roman empire Konrada has failed, as francs could not plan and co-ordinate the actions.
In 1180th years on a scene there is great Saladin - really the ingenious leader of Kurds. Again having united by 1187 Egypt and the Muslim Near East, it has broken crusaders in fight at Tiverii, has grasped Jerusalem and all other part of kingdom, except port the Shooting gallery. To rescue the remained earths and to win Jerusalem, the third, most known crusade has been organised. The emperor of Sacred Roman empire Fridrih I Barbarossa has passed a march Europe and Asia Minor, but casually was lost, having sunk. However kings English and French, the Lion-Heart and Phillip II, have successfully reached the purpose and have developed operations. In passing the Lion-Heart has subdued Cyprus (and subsequently has sold its remained landless to the king of Jerusalem Gi de Luzinjanu).
After a two-year siege in 1191 the coastal city of the Acre has been grasped, and crusaders have moved to Jerusalem. As Phillip II has returned earlier to France, in Richard's army one-man management, and its further actions against Saladina, and also respect with which these two soldiers fed to each other was established, have made the most known episode in the history of crusades. After skilfully prepared throw along coast (one of its flanks has been protected by the sea), Richard has given battle and has broken Saladina under Arsufom (1191). Turks have been compelled to pass to defence, but inconsistency has not allowed to crusaders to develop success. In 1192 the contract recognising the control of francs over coast and the right of Christian pilgrims on visiting of Jerusalem has been signed. But the city remained in hands a Turk.
With leaving of the Lion-Heart the heroic epoch of campaigns in the Sacred earth has come to an end. The fourth Crusade has not achieved the object because of aspirations of the Venetians supervising by then the Mediterranean trade and thirsting still bolshej of the power. Crusaders "чряыр=шыш for яЁюхчф" on the Venetian courts, having won for Venice the Christian city of Zadar. Then them have forwarded to Constantinople where they have restored the power svergnutogo the emperor supported by Venetians. But here crusaders became at all uncontrollable, and as a result have plundered a city and have profaned its relics, having given vent to accruing aversion of the refined culture of Greeks and their orthodox belief.
On the Byzantian earths has been created also half a century has existed so-called. Latin empire. And though eventually francs have been expelled with bolshej parts of territory of Byzantium, the empire already never could restore former power.
Outside of Europe was four more Crusades, but only one of them in the Sacred earth. This sixth Crusade (1228-29) has been begun by the emperor of Sacred Roman empire Fridrihom II. Though the Church damned it as the heretic, it has won Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth.
However these gains have appeared time success. Growing dissociation of Christians in the Sacred earth allowed revived Egyptian sultanatu to destroy one stronghold of francs behind another.
The Spirit of crusaders, however, yet has absolutely died away, and in 1271 under Louis of IX Sacred, the king of France, and prince Edward Anglijskogo, subsequently king Edward I, last attempt which has failed in Tunis has been undertaken. In the meantime in 1268 Antiohija after it, in 1271 - a fortress of Krak de Shevale, and in 1289 - Tripoli has fallen.
The Capture Moslems Acres in 1291 g has put an end to presence of francs at Asia Minor. Crusades in the Sacred earth any more was not, though this name used for other military campaigns blest with church - for example, otvoevanija Christians of Spain.