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Europeans in a New World

without been slow to take advantage of Columbus's opening, Spaniards and Portugueses have created in Central and the South America huge empires. Development not North America so rich at first sight much later has begun.

For the rest of the natural Columbus and did not recognise that could not reach India. But other Spaniards have soon decided that will of a case have come across the extensive novel earths which can be plundered, won and turned into the belief with impunity. In this adventure they did not have contenders except the Portugueses who have casually opened Brazil in 1500 As this country lay to the east from the line of section of again opened earths spent to 1494 on zones of the Spanish and Portuguese influence, it became the Portuguese colony. Spain all was taken away other Central and the South America from New Mexico to Tierra del Fuego, and also - theoretically - less fertile earths further to the north to which Spaniards did not show a particular interest.

Spaniards have first occupied the largest islands of Caribbean basin. Many settlers were engaged in agriculture on the new earths and in 1501 began to deliver slaves from Africa. But an easy mark - gold, silver and jewels - it has appeared much less, than expected. Therefore ambitious grandees and the small noblemen, not had time to make own fortune, without effort hired mercenaries for new dangerous expeditions to depth of the American continent.

These people - leaders and their henchmen - have won doubtful glory of conquistadors ("чртюхтр=хыхщ"). For the sake of the blessing of Spain and Catholic belief these fearless and ruthless adventurers have crushed great empires of Aztecs and inkov. Any territory grasped by them appeared the property of the Spanish crown though all expeditions were undertaken exclusively at own risk. Often enough they received the royal patents guaranteeing in case of success of a post and riches.

Hearings about new empire

Since 1509 at northern coast of the South America the first continental settlements have started to appear. In 1513 Vasko Nunes de Balboa has crossed isthmus of Panama and the first of Europeans has seen Pacific ocean. He immediately declared its property of the Spanish king and has confirmed growing belief that huge water space separates a New World from so desired for Columbus Indii. And hardly Spaniards were reached by legends of local tribes about existence on continent of great and fantastically rich empire, the New World has ceased to be an inconvenient barrier and in itself has turned to a tidbit. Participating in development of Cuba adventurer Ernando Cortes has accepted these hearings for the guide to action and became the first of great conquistadors.

Cortes burns the ships

In 1519 Cortes has dared at open disobedience to the governor of Cuba and has sailed to coast of Mexico at the head of the group consisting of 600 soldiers, 17 horses and 10 guns. Having put ashore, it has made two symbolical gestures: has based the city of Veracruz and has burnt the ships, letting know colleagues that the return way is not present.

Having learnt about Cortes's campaign in depth of continent, emperor Montesuma has directed to it messengers with the friendly message and has simultaneously disposed to arrange an ambush. When military cunning is not has gone right, Montesuma, despite the huge superiority in forces, any more has not made any serious attempt to stop advancement of Spaniards. Should be, the Spanish soldiers inspired to Aztecs reverential horror as descended on the earth of god for they went astride unprecedented beings, carried an armour and the weapon from unknown metal (steel) and amazed the enemy on distance with the "уЁхь Ёшьш =Ёѕсърьш".

Europeans in a New World However, and Spaniards have felt not less strong shock when in November, 1519 for the first time have seen great capital of Aztecs - the lake city of Tenochtitlan which was not conceding to the largest cities of Europe. Cortes, has rendered to which Montesuma the cordial welcome, at the first opportunity has captured the emperor. Resignedly having obeyed destiny, Montesuma did everything that from it it was required. And as citizens esteemed the emperor as a deity, its dismissal from the power has cast the state into full chaos. However Cortes had to return to this moment hastily at coast not to admit attempt of the governor of Cuba to replace with its protege. Having come back in capital, Cortes has found out that the deputy left in a city the zhestokostjami has provoked Aztecs to mutiny. Montesuma, wounded at attempt to pacify the citizens, or has died of wounds, or has been killed by Spaniards. By force of arms Cortes and a small group of its colleagues were pulled out from an environment, have sent behind reinforcements and have managed to win round a number of American Indian tribes. Considerably having strengthened forces, Cortes has surrounded and took in a siege of Tenochtitlan, and on August, 13th 1521г. The city has fallen after desperate seven-week resistance. Sovereignty of Aztecs has been broken for ever. Tenochtitlan has been wiped off the face of the earth, and on its place the city of the Mexico City which have become by capital "-ютющ Ђёярэшш" has grown;. Indians - both enemies, and allies - have been turned into slavery. The bloody sacrificial religion of Aztecs was ruthlessly eradicated, and American Indian tribes violently addressed in Christianity.

Europeans in a New World the Subjugator of other great American Indian empire became the person who was not conceding to Cortes neither in bravery, nor in impudence, especially in recklessness. Fransisko Pisarro was the illiterate adventurer, from the first steps taking part in continent colonisation. In 1520th Pisarro, carried away by legends about existence somewhere in the south of mysterious "чюыю=ющ шьяхЁшш" investigated coast Peru and has reached the city of Tumbes on the border inkskih possession. Having convinced by that gold here is valid much, Pisarro has persuaded the king of Spain to appoint its governor of the yet not won empire. In 1531, having subdued extensive seaside territories, it has moved to depth of continent at the head still smaller group, than Cortes. The emperor inkov Ataualpa could destroy at any moment a pity handful of mercenaries, but instead has directed messengers with greetings and has organised to newcomers a worthy meeting. As a sign of good will the emperor left towards to Pisarrovo at the head of huge unarmed retinue. At the very same time Spaniards have ruthlessly interrupted defenceless inkov, and Ataualpu have captured. The Indians who have here again remained without the leader could undertake nothing. Ataualpa has agreed about the repayment for the person - infinite quantity of gold and the silver which delivery has occupied some months. But after payment of the repayment Spaniards have betrayed Ataualpu "ёѕфѕ" also have sentenced to death. And as by then it has been turned into Christianity as a sign of special favour it have not burnt on a fire, and have strangled.

Having enthroned the protege, on November, 15th, 1533 Pisarro has made triumphal entrance to capital inkov Cuzco. Later inki have lifted last great mutiny against strangers which hardly has not crowned success, and their guerrilla tactics some more years delivered troubles to aggressors. However much more serious conflicts have inflamed between Pisarro and its partners, willows of 1541 he has been killed by political contenders.

Latin America

In the meantime other conquistadors have confirmed the Spanish sovereignty in all Central and the South America, and full-scale development of the new earths has begun. Newly appeared misters were engaged in agriculture, having occupied position of feudal seigneurs.

the Slave labour on mines

Work of Indians with unprecedented cruelty was maintained on plantations and mines. In Mexico and Potosi (present Bolivia) have been opened rich deposits of silver, and in XVI-XVII centuries the precious metal extracted there went through Atlantic for financing of ambitious aspirations of Spain to the European domination. And as the Spanish crown did not feel sorry for means for the sake of achievement of the ambitious purposes, silver a generous stream joined the European economic system.

Europe, in turn, too has made far-reaching impact on destinies of both Americas. Has appeared so-called "-р=шэёър  +ьхЁшър" Catholic on creed, Spanish and Portuguese on language and culture. The illnesses delivered by Europeans have made enormous a devastation among local population, having impulsed to delivery of black slaves from Africa. As a result of mixture of the European, African and American Indian races extremely motley population, almost free from racial prejudices was generated. At the same time to a class of misters in the Latin American society Spaniards on a birth or an origin belonged mainly, and thoroughbred Indians usually made the poorest group of the population.

Advancement on the north

Against infinite riches Central and the South America the earths lying further to the north, seemed to Spaniards less attractive. Other Europeans too did not hasten for ocean, and successful development of these edges has begun only in a XVII-th century.
In 1580th the favourite of queen Elizabeth Uolter Reli has twice tried to base an English colony on island Roanoke near coasts of Virginia, but both times has failed. The Jamestown (Virginia) based in 1607 In 1620 arrived on historical vessel "¦Іщ¶ырѕІЁ" became the first colony to which managed to start up strong roots; "ю=ч№ яшышуЁшь№" have begun development of New England. Six years later the Dutches who were then at top of power have got at Indians island Manhattan for 24 dollars with intention to base New Holland, and in Canada Frenchmen under leadership of Samjuelja de Shamplejna were fixed on river banks of St. Lavrentija and have based the city of Quebec.

New immigrants

Disembarkation "яшышуЁшьют" on cape the Code has become history, becoming a symbol of some distinctive features of English colonial conquests. Unlike settlers of Jamestown belonging to Anglican belief, "яшышуЁшь№" were religiioznymi dissidents - puritans (after them named kongregatsionalistami which disagreed with dogma of Anglican church and have gone for ocean freely to profess the belief. Since then the American colonies became a shelter for all who was exposed to persecutions on the native land (for example, Maryland - for Catholics, and Pennsylvania - for Quakers).

Puritan community

Europeans in a New World puritans Running from religious persecutions showed the same intolerance, trying to impose the belief another. Especially sad glory the colony has got the severe Puritan customs the Massachusetts which has expanded from settlement on cape the Code. But with flow of new immigrants all became more difficult to keep the religious superiority. Colonies were occupied by people of different creeds who gradually learnt to get on peacefully with each other. Efforts of pilgrims the beginning was necessary also to traditions of colonial self-management.

In 1664 Englishmen have grasped New Amsterdam and the Dutch colony on Manhattan, having renamed it into New York. Other colonies were little by little formed also, last - 13th - from which became in 1733 Georgia. So the basis of the future state - the United States of America has been put.