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the First world the soldier

There was time when it named "-хышъющ тющэющ" for to it there were no equal destructions on scales and a death-roll.

The Reasons of I world war have arisen in a XIX-th century when from the small princedoms entering at various times in structure of the different countries, the uniform states have started to be formed. Such new powers as Germany and Italy, have wished to affirm at once in the same row with old mother countries - Russia, France and Britain, shaky Austro-Hungarian empire as the center of Europe and a drooping Turkish Ottoman empire in the Near East.

Contenders and enemies

By 1914 great powers were divided into two alliances resisting each other. In one camp have rallied tsentralnoevropejskie powers. The greatest influence from them Germany and Austro-Hungary possessed. As their partner Italy has acted, but in due course relations with it have grown cold against gradual rapprochement with Turkey and Bulgaria. Other block - Antanta, or Allied powers - united France, Russia and Britain.

At each member of these unions were strong and weaknesses. Germany has turned to the largest military force of Europe. Its attempts to compete to Britain on the sea have caused intensity in relations between both countries. Austro-Hungary, on the contrary, represented extensive, but the growing decrepit empire which has been hammered together from set of restless and dissatisfied regions.

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Britain, the pioneer of industrial development, a rule boundless overseas empire. The main stronghold of its defence the mighty military fleet, rather than the small professional army totaling 386 000 people Russia for kind 40 years was faster lagged behind on level of military and technical development, but could put under a gun millions soldiers. France has not recovered yet from the defeat put to it by Germany in ex-Prussian war 1870-71, and payments of contributions.

However, war has burst not somewhere, and on the Balkans. Until recently this part of continent was under the power of Ottoman empire, but with leaving a Turk the influence zone here was released, to take hold which aspired both Russia, and Austro-Hungary. In 1908 Austro-Hungary has grasped Bosnia and Herzegovina, having angered not only local Serbs, but also independent next kingdom Serbia. Russia traditionally supporting Serbia, has protested, but was not ready to resolute actions. Intensity in region became critical when on June, 28th, 1914 in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo by hand the Serbian student Gavrilo of the Principle Frants Ferdinand and his wife were lost the successor of the Austrian throne ertsgertsog.


the All-out warfare

Furious Austro-Hungary has accused Serbia what it stands up for this murder, and on July, 28th has intruded in this country. Russia has risen on protection of Serbs and after two days has called up for military service 1,2 million persons. Germany was not slow to be got involved in fight, having shown Russia the ultimatum - or to cancel mobilisation within 24 hours, or to it war will be declared. Having been refused, Germany has declared on August, 1st war of Russia, and on August, 3rd and France, as to its ally.

According to plan of Shliffena, Germany should finish with France before Russia will have time to be prepared for war not to conduct a two-front war - in the west and the east. The shortest way bypassing the French frontier strengthenings lay through Belgium. When neutral Belgium has refused to pass the German armies, Germans have intruded on August, 4th on its territory. Britain - the guarantor of the Belgian neutrality - has declared this very day war of Germany. Has not passed also six weeks as all Europe blazed. And in November war was entered also by Turkey on the party of the Central powers.


Okopnaja war

Polutoramillionnuju, appear, could stop nothing the German army. It has pressed Frenchmen on all Western front and on August, 31st has broken through in battle at Mons defence of the small British forwarding case. However in September Frenchmen managed to stop Germans in battle on Marne. Both parties, having earthed, have constructed extensive systems of entrenchments. This line of entrenchments was stretched on 700 km through all France.

the First world the soldier Okopnoj war on the Western front could last the whole four years. Fights were conducted by months. Command continually sent armies in approach, and one day carried away lives of tens thousand the people who were lost for the sake of a pity plot of land. Almost to the end of war the front line was not displaced more than on 65 km in this or that party.

The Massed approaches of Allies (mainly, Frenchmen) in 1915 were accompanied by huge human losses, without bringing appreciable successes.


On East front

Wreck of Austro-Hungary under blows of the Russian army has compelled Germany to throw for the east of more armies, than was planned. The second front which Germans so were afraid, became a reality. And still in fights with Russian they have achieved unexpected successes, having gained large victories in 1914 at Tannenberge and on Masurian lakes, and in 1915 having grasped the Russian part of Poland. The same year Bulgaria has entered war on the party of Germany, and the germano-Bulgarian armies quickly occupied Serbia. Having suffered defeat on East and Balkan fronts, the Austrians have succeeded in fights with Italians who have joined Allies in 1915. When in 1916 Romania too has entered war on the party of Allies, Germans quickly occupied this country, having grasped prompt and brilliant blow strategic petrocrafts.


All world on war fire

the First world the soldier on August, 22nd, 1915 Japan, having declared war of Germany, has struck blow to a German colony of Tsingtao. Later 11 weeks, on November, 7th, this military base has fallen under joint blows of the Japanese and British armies. The German colonies in Africa have undergone to attacks also. In the continent southwest the South African armies, and in the east - Englishmen were at war.

The Newest military inventions were immediately started, sowing death and destructions. Germen the first have applied heavy artillery. Ruptures of the shells which have been let out on continent by a huge gun "…юыі°р  …хЁ=р" were audible on other party of La Manche. But most of all victims was on the account at machine guns and at the chlorine causing blindness and an asthma and especially dangerous that wind change frequently directed a poisonous cloud on the armies. When in fight on Somme the tank invented by Englishmen, appear, for the first time has been applied that war is already won. But the effect of suddenness has been lost, tanks have started up in fight earlier, than their manufacture has reached the level guaranteeing a fast victory.


Air attacks

Both parties used and recently invented aircraft. In this war the civilians for the first time have undergone to bombardments.

In the meantime war in the west went the turn. As before, the British command at the head e the field marshal Douglas Hejgom rested hopes of more and more massed approaches demanding the increasing victims, rejecting any other ways of an exit from deadlock. The plan offered by the first lord of Admiralty by Winston Churchill became a unique exception. He believed that victories can achieve, having deduced from war Turkey. But on the Dardanellsky expedition undertaken in 1915 the British fleet has not managed to grasp Turkish capital. The Turkish army has managed to reflect and landed on p-ove Gallipolp a landing of the British, Australian and New Zealand armies which Frenchmen and Indians later have joined.

In 1916 the conflicting parties have increased manufacture of arms. Britain declared general mobilisation, and Lloyd George became the prime minister. In Germany over military operations generals of Gindenburg and Ljudendorf supervised. And only in 1917 France has managed to find the leader with so iron will in George Klemanso by a nickname "КшуЁ".


the Sea war

During all war the British fleet dominated by all seas. Only in 1916 the German Navy has given to royal fleet decisive battle at p-ova Jutland. Englishmen have lost more ships and a manpower, but have managed to tyre out the German fleet back in port where it and remained till the end of war. As a result the royal Navy took Germany in blockade, having deprived of its deliveries of strategic raw materials.


Underwater terror

Germany assigned the Main hopes to counterblockade by forces of the submarines which heated the ships delivering supplies to Great Britain. When on May, 8th, 1915 the German submarine has sunk the passenger liner "-ѕчш=рэш " on which board there were 128 influential Americans, the introduction into war of the angered USA on the party of Allies became quite real.

Germans have suspended "эхюуЁрэшёхээѕ¦ underwater тющэѕ" till 1917 when, having floated new submarines, they have renewed campaign. Killing German submarines have sunk hundreds trading courts while Englishmen were come to mind by idea of conducting of escorts under protection of destroyers. The German submarine war has suffered a failure, and in April, 1917 US president Vudro Wilson has declared war of Germany.

While the USA prepared for sending of armies, war in the west went the turn. Germans had to recede, but on well prepared positions (a line of Ginden-burga). Englishmen completely uvjazli in a dirt flandrskih bogs, and in the French army continually flashed mutinies. Germen in the east where in November, 1917 revolution in Russia has burst have achieved more appreciable successes, and to the power Bolsheviks with their promises of the world have come.


Forces on an outcome

Forces of allies of Germany have been exhausted. The Austrian emperor tried to carry on negotiations for the conclusion of the separate world, and Turks receded on all fronts, having lost Bagdad and Jerusalem. The increasing exhaustion and demoralisation covered also German soldiers - and after all on the way there were Americans. The first armies under command of major general Pershinga have landed in Europe on June, 27th, 1917

When on March, 3rd, 1918 Bolsheviks have signed the Brest peace treaty with Germany, Ljudendorf has grasped last chance to win war. Germany has immediately thrown million army on the Western front. During the offensive operation of Ljudendorfa begun on March, 31st allied armies have been compelled to recede, but only for short time. Both parties sustained enormous losses, but by July to the aid of Allies the American armies - on 300.000 persons in a month have started to arrive.


IN LAST HOUR

the First world the soldier on August, 8th, 1918 Allies, having united forces under the uniform Supreme commander-in-chief of marshal Fosha, have undertaken approach near Amiens and have broken through the German defence. Receding to Belgium, Germans furiously battled, and by the time of the termination of fights were on another's earth.

In October there was a disorder of Austro-Hungarian empire, the British and Arabian armies under command of major Lawrence took Damascus, Turkey and Bulgaria capitulated. On the German fleet mutinies have flashed, and the Kaiser has been compelled to abdicate. On October, 31st, 1918 Germany has applied about an armistice (the termination of military operations) which has been concluded in 11 o'clock in the morning on November, 11th, 1918 In June 1919 g victorious Allies have imposed Germany extremely severe constraints of the Versailles peace treaty. To war, "ъю=юЁр  should become last in шё=юЁшш" the end has been put.