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the French revolution

the French revolution has dethroned a monarchy since ancient times correcting by the country, has proclaimed Freedom, Equality and the Brotherhood and has stood in battles with Europe which has taken up arms against it. But a gate of a new epoch has been open by the terrible price of human blood and sufferings.

In 1789 France did not know to itself equal on power in Europe. It kept this almost sesquicentennial domination thanks to the fertile earths rich human and natural resources. In a XVIII-th century with trade and industry development the vigorous middle class has acted on arena, sciences and art prospered. However France in many respects remained a medieval society where economic development restrained every possible local rules, laws and interdictions.

The People had nothing to wait neither from the government, nor from judicial system where many posts were simply bought by those who is richer, and were used as an income source. This and many other defects widely admitted a society, partly thanks to efforts of such influential thinkers of a XVIII-th century, as Voltaire and Diderot.

the Government-bankrupt

Full bankruptcy of the government became Last drop. Besides huge means for the maintenance of the most brilliant court yard in Europe, the French kings did not feel sorry for money for powerful army and fleet, continually starting ambitious and expensive wars. All it with interest exceeded financial possibilities of treasury, at least, while richest of citizens continued pays scanty taxes. Crown debts grew from year to year, but the apogee financial crisis has reached at Louis XVI (1774-93). At the same time, any attempts of some far-sighted the first the minister to carry out reform of the royal finance have invariably come across resistance of the nobility. In the next war France has helped the American colonists to dethrone sovereignty of Britain, but this victory was gave by new huge debts. At last, after meetings of noble family have ruined the next attempt of reform, Louis XVI has dared at an unusual step, having called General States. This almost forgotten elective body (not convoked since 1614) was closest to parliament in all French history. Its medieval sources are obvious already from internally class organisation. First two estates were nobility and clergy. The third represented all other population of the country - merchants, poor men of lawyers, peasants and city workers.

Voting in Versailles

On May, 5th, 1789 in a royal palace Versailles that in 12 miles from Paris, session of General States has opened. Probably Louis hoped that any originally radical offers will be ruined, for voting was traditionally spent "яю ёюёыютш ь" giving to nobility and clergy double overweight over the third estate. However it should guard and the past on a wave of public lifting elections, and an enthusiastic reception of General States in the people. Almost all elective representatives of the third estate belonged to the formed middle class, and they have insisted on that all estates sat together and voted "яю уюыютрь" i.e. The simple majority of all deputies. As the third estate twice exceeded on number any of first two, "юсЁшэ№" would receive the obvious majority and by that the way to many sweeping changes not necessary neither the king, nor exclusive classes would open. Dispute on a voting procedure became for the third estate solving examination on firmness. When their requirements have been rejected, they have sworn ("т to a hall for game in ь ё") To develop the constitution and have proclaimed itself National meeting. the French revolution After some weeks of intense expectation the king has ordered to the first and second estates to join National meeting. At the same time Louis has caused ostensibly for protection of Paris four standing along borders of an army regiment. But news about this order and displacement of the popular minister in the people have generated in the people of fear of military punishment and have forced Parisians to rush on weapon and gunpowder searches to protect itself. When it became known that the weapon and gunpowder are brought in a gloomy fortress-prison the Bastile, crowds to the people have rushed to storm and have grasped it after short, but furious battle. Defenders of a fortress have been ruthlessly interrupted. By then in it remains not so many prisoners, but the Bastile was a symbol of royal tyranny, and an anniversary of its capture is marked to this day in France as a national holiday.

Constitutional monarchy

Generated by National meeting and political changes enthusiasm has reached new heights. Understanding that it is impossible to count on fidelity of armies, Louis XVI, compelled to be reconciled with new sociopolitical order, has reluctantly incurred a role of a constitutional monarch. Acceleration of this process was helped also by events with a province where ridiculous hearings have generated a panic and the excitements named "тхышъшь ё=Ёр§юь". On August, 4th, 1789 the National meeting movable by mixed feelings of idealism and fear, has cancelled all feudal rights, for the first time having given to peasants original freedom. Has not passed also two years as the century web of local traditions and feudal privileges was smetena without the rest, and France has found in general the present form of statehood.

Despite all these radical measures, Meeting where natives of average and higher classes prevailed, has developed an electoral system allocating with a vote only of prosperous citizens. At the same time, in the Declaration of human rights and the citizen the Meeting has proclaimed a number of fundamental ideas of Revolution - that people are allocated by a number of inalienable laws and that all of them an essence the citizens, having the right to take feasible part in a society administrative office, and completely not silent citizens. In a sense by 1791 Revolution has executed the primary goals, however many shocks were still ahead.

Intrigues of the titled emigration

After Bastile falling many do not agree with changes aristocrats ran abroad, and under the influence of these emigrants krepla suspiciousness of the European lords to revolution. They were afraid - and not without the reasons, - that the French example will lead to origin of revolutionary ideas in minds of their own citizens, and felt clear sympathy for the troubles, fallen to a lot of the crowned colleague of Louis XV. Louis true relation to revolution was showed during the moment when he together with a family has tried to run abroad. All family has been detained in Varenne and returned to Paris. It is an act of the king has definitively undermined constitutional monarchy foundations.

Massacre and war

Rate of events promptly accrued, in April, 1792 war between France, Austria and Prussia has burst. In August the Parisian crowd has taken by storm a palace of Tjuilri, and the king has been detained. In September successes of enemy armies have generated a panic. The Parisian common people, having rushed to searches of traitors, has rushed into prisons and has interrupted many prisoners. Since then, warmed up by external threat fanaticism and suspicious, the French revolution have created suffocating atmosphere where the crowd, "шчьхээшъш" dominated; were condemned to death, and the new tool of execution - giltinoj - the blood rivers spilt.

Victorious battle at Valmi only has removed for some time threat of Prussian intrusion, but also became a symbol of still considerable military force of France. The next day, session of again selected Meeting or Convent which has immediately proclaimed France republic on September, 21st, 1793 has opened. Military victories have induced Convent on "ІъёяюЁ=" revolutions and the offer to help any people which will wish to dethrone the governors. By February 1793 France was at war almost with all countries of Europe, including Britain, and the Convent in a pointed manner executed Louis XVI.

Mutiny in the west

Applying more and more severe measures, Revolution produced new enemies. In Vendee (in the west of France) long royalist mutiny has begun. Struggle in Convent between two conflicting groupings - zhirondistami and Jacobeans - has come to the end with destruction zhirondistov, but their supporters in provinces have started to lift mutinies. By August, 1793 the French armies receded on all fronts, Englishmen have grasped large port Toulon, paper money of republic (assignaty) promptly depreciated, and almost all country burnt in a flame of civil war. There has come great crisis of revolution.

Under the direction of Jacobeans the Republic has accepted vigorous counter-measures. All power has been transferred in hands of two committees to major of which was the Committee of public rescue. Its structure included a number visible jakobinskih leaders, including George Danton and Maksimilian Robesper. Committees declared general mobilisation, have generated new armies, stabilised economy and on all country have dispatched commissioners for conducting propaganda and heterodoxy suppression.

the terror Power

Results have not kept itself waiting. By the end of 1793 overseas armies have been superseded, and the most part of France is returned under the Republic control. However all these heroic efforts were accompanied by massacre and terror certificates, many of which were a handwork of the commissioners dispatched in a province. The greatest scope "тырё=і =хЁЁюЁр" has got in Paris where every month under a guillotine knife there were hundreds people on more and more far-fetched charges.

Political civil strifes between various fractions of the Jacobeans which top was execution of Dantona and its supporters in a short-term ascension of Robespera which soon and itself was became Other party of Terror will dethrone and is decapitated in July, 1794 Many of those who spun intrigues against Robespera, were same "=хЁЁюЁшё=рьш" ready to send on a guillotine still bolshee number of victims. But by then the majority in Convent was satiated with massacre and with public opinion support has put an end to Terror.

Victories in Europe

At the new form of republican board, the Directory which have come in the stead to Convent, in the French society more free, hedonistic spirit was established. At the same time in Europe fierce battles proceeded. The most brilliant victories have been gained in Italy by the young general by name of Napoleon Bonaparte. Military successes have strengthened influence of generals, and in 1799 Bonaparte became the successor of the French Republic and Revolution, having directed their development on absolutely new way.