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Georgiantsy and jakobity

Practically during all XVIII-th century England enjoyed the long period of stability only occasionally interrupted with excitements from which revolts jakobitov are most memorable.

In 1714 queen Anna has died. It has appeared last representative of a dynasty of Stewarts on the British throne. Despite conspiratorial plans in favour of its exiled of stepbrother Jacob who was called "Р=рЁ№ь яЁх=хэфхэ=юь" the throne without special obstacles has passed to the foreign prince, its nearest relative-Protestant. Georgiantsy and jakobity So George, kurfjurst Hanover, the small North German state, became, despite weak knowledge of English language, the king of Great Britain George I and the ancestor of the Hanover dynasty.

First nobody believed that gannovertsy will keep a throne and they will manage to avoid revolution from outside jakobitov, followers of the exiled of king Jacob (a Latin writing of his name - Jacobus). In England plot jakobitov has been opened and suppressed in a germ but when columns Map has lifted Jacob's banners in mountains of Scotland, it was adjoined by the majority of the Scottish clans. However Map operated insufficiently resolutely, and after the battle lost in November, 1715 at Sherifmuire jakobity have lost the initiative. By December when even more cautious at last has arrived "Р=рЁ№щ яЁх=хэфхэ=" campaign has been hopelessly lost. The army jakobitov has dissipated, and without having given fight, and in February, 1716 Jacob ran back to France. The following attempt in 1719, supported by Spaniards, was even more unsuccessful.

the New era

Within several years these and other flashes of instability did not allow to realise that throne transition to the Hanover dynasty has opened a new era - an era in which bloody conflicts of a XVIII-th century seemed more and more senseless. Successful prestolonasledie became the big victory of political party "тшуют" and parliament, having established balance of political forces and having put an end to violence revelry in the country. Political stability promoted prompt trading expansion, already then were distinctive feature of the British society. Banks and arising stock exchange used the increasing popularity - actions were on sale and bought directly in coffee houses. Negative sides of exchange gamble were showed in 1720, when "-юьярэш  Southern ьюЁхщ" declared itself the bankrupt after the prices for its actions were is artificial are excited till the fantastic sizes, and money of shareholders is started up on speculative operations. "¦№ыіэ№щ яѕч№Ёі" Has burst, having ruined hundreds people, having compromised many members of the government and having caused financial crisis in the country.


the First prime minister

In crisis by an appreciable political figure there was sir Robert Uolpol whom often name the first British prime minister. It operated all branches of the power that to it it was not possible practically to anybody. Uolpol did not suffer competitors in the government and could provide the firm majority in the House of Commons at the expense of a skilful manipulation with elections and members of parliament. Though its methods were often criticised, it was the effective way of maintenance of all-out support of the government for lack of the debugged party system. Place and protection use has been rather extended - the crown remunerated the friends and "фЁѕчхщ the фЁѕчхщ" by means of direct political appointments. At Uolpole the similar individual management became art, having put a basis of political system of England of the end XVIII centuries.

Within twenty years of the premerstva (1721-42) Uolpol skilfully combined moderate taxes with peace foreign policy. The economic prosperity which has not kept long waiting, has strengthened positions of the Hanover dynasty and has made jakobinstvo no more than sentimental memoirs everywhere, except industrially backward mountain areas of Scotland.

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But the world epoch approached the end: the British trading and imperial ambitions accepted more and more aggressive form, old disputes with other European powers again have inflamed. Compelled to enter war with Spain (that later has poured out in the conflict to France), Uolpol has got down to business without due enthusiasm and as a result has retired, but to it on change its supporters have come, and the political system remained practically without changes.


Definitive defeat

For lack of the best British parts which were at war in Europe, Stewarts have made last attempt to return a throne. This time they have found the suitable leader in the person "Мэюую яЁх=хэфхэ=р" (prince Charles Edward, the son "Р=рЁюую яЁх=хэфхэ=р"). Georgiantsy and jakobity Unexpectedly having landed in Scotland with a handful of true people in July, 1745, it proclaims the father the king, stirs clans to action and grasps Edinburgh. In the end of September of its army win the important battle and go into territory of England.

Jakobitam was possible to promote far enough on the south, but revolt of Englishmen for which conspirators hoped, and was not materialised, except that, armies of a ruling dynasty have replenished with the parts hastily thrown from continent. Approach almost for certain would lead to utter defeat, deviation would mean a recognition of a failure of all enterprise, Jakobity have made decision to recede. On the way to the north they have won two more battles, but on April, 16th, 1746 during Kallodensky fight of the tool and muskets of regular parts of the duke Kamberlendsky have not left to the Scottish civil guardsmen any hopes. An army "Мэюую яЁх=хэфхэ=р" it has been broken, and he after a number of improbable adventures ran from Scotland.

Kallodensky fight has decided destiny of Scotland. The British government declared that do not intend to be reconciled more with an uncontrollable breeding community. Mountaineers have been severely punished, clan way of the Scottish society has been destroyed.


Parliamentary reform

When in some years Britain has appeared involved in Seven-year war (1756-63), it has received the brilliant leader in the name of William Pitt-senior (subsequently the column of Chatham). The British armies have played in this all-European conflict the limited role, but victories over France in struggle for colonies in India, Canada and in Caribbean sea have let to all know that Britain became leading trading, imperial and sea power. In the country in 1750th years the political life has lost stability as the majority in the House of Commons, consisting of vigov, has broken up into contradictory fractions. In 1760 to the power vigorous young king George III has come. He wished to play more active role in government and direct decision-making that in bayonets has been met by its opponents who have got used to passivity of previous two Georges, that is why declared illegality of such steps. And though George III as a whole behaved within the limits of the law, its many decisions, since appointment of count Bjuta as the prime minister, were unsuccessful. Beat, the former instructor of the king, had no political support, and efficient control is impossible without carefully built majority in the House of Commons.

In 1760th years in power there were governments quickly replacing each other vigov. The Most outstanding events of decade are connected with the legendary John Uilksom convicting the king and Bjuta on pages of the edition "РхтхЁэ№щ сЁш=рэхч". Its antagonism with the power has bared a number of acute problems, especially in sphere of a freedom of speech and the parliamentary power, and has served as the beginning of public campaign under the slogan "Лшыъё and ётюсюфр". People understood more and more that the parliament, called to be on guard of their freedom, as a matter of fact, is corrupted and represents interests of very narrow circle. Campaign in support of Uilksa has impulsed the future movement for parliamentary reform.


Friends of the king

In 1770 the king has appointed the minister of lord Norta who has created party "-Ёѕчі  ъюЁюы " allowed it more than decades to keep an office under the control. For a long time becoming ripe problems of 13 American colonies however have in the seventies become aggravated, world and war questions dared incompetently and as a result colonies have been lost.

Were in opposition to "-Ёѕчі ь ъюЁюы " vigi began to get lines of party of reforms. The king has found the rescue in the name of William Pitga Jr. (the son of the lord of Chatham) who in 1783 became the prime minister at the age of 24 years. Possessing a name, administrative gift and support of the king, Pitt-junior has managed to restore the stability based on limited economic reforms and refusal of ventures in the country.


the Wind of changes

In the meantime behind parliament walls radical ideas spread. The society demanded selective reform and vote granting bolshem to number of people. After the French revolution of 1789 has got popularity the slogan "Ртюсюфр, equality, сЁр=ё=тю". However the situation has sharply changed in 1793 after the introduction of Britain into war with France. To be a radical became nepatriotichno. Hastily passed repressive laws on the whole generation have tired out radicalism in an underground. In parliament many vigi yшли from Fox also have joined Pitt's new party which became, as a matter of fact the updated Tory party and has received the overwhelming majority.

Georgiantsy and jakobity Besides, war has aggravated the Irish problem. Though its Catholic majority had no all civil rights, and the economy submitted to England, Ireland in a XVIII-th century has got lines of statehood and during some time kept freedom illusions. In 1798 when it became clear to Irish that their hopes are vain revolt has flashed. Though Frenchmen could not render to Irish of support, the authorities have been so frightened by scope of revolt that have suppressed it with improbable cruelty, and then have bribed the corrupted Irish parliament which has obediently voted for self-dissolution. Under the law (certificate) about unii 1801 Ireland has been directly attached to Britain. So the United Kingdom Great Britain and Ireland (since 1922 - Northern Ireland) has been created.