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Hour of belief

the Christian belief was a basis of a medieval western civilisation. But the bolshee the power - and with it and privileges - was got by church, the the sparks of discontent kindled by infinite internal conflicts, splits and scandals is more often flashed.

In X century Christian Europe has started to expand the limits, step by step pushing aside enemies. Any time these processes occurred as in the West where the Catholicism dominated, and in the east where the orthodox church indefatigably worked on the reference of Slavs in Christianity. By then between these two directions there was already a split, a mutual distance and formation of own doctrines though reunion attempts from time to time were undertaken.

It is More than that, each of these churches the different future expected. Orthodoxy soon could undergo to a severe impact of Islam. And for the West some future centuries become "ёрёюь тхЁ№" when the life of each person will be penetrated by church and religion influence.


the Response in souls

The Majority of inhabitants of that epoch dragged full of deprivations, gloomy existence that did especially tempting a Christian postulate on eternal pleasure in heavens keys from which were in church hands. The clergy posessed monopoly and for education. In a word, the religion was center of all life, and priests everywhere esteemed as the higher beings.


Spiritual elite

At the beginning of the Middle Ages many considered clergy, especially monastic, "фѕ§ютэющ Іыш=ющ". Bringing vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, monks lived the closed communities under the severe charter, having tightly fenced off from wordly vanity. Any Christian should adhere to such way of life in an ideal, and since V century original blossoming of Christianity and a monkhood which leant against the charter developed by St. Benedict has begun.

X and XI vv, were marked by the further spiritual transformations, the beginning which has put based in 910 in France abbey Kljuni. Soon to an example of this large abbey 1500 monasteries have followed almost. Kljunijsky influence was felt in all western Christianity, moving church on eradication of defects and submission of clergy to rigid discipline.


Papacy

In XI century a number of new monastic orders, including tsistertsiansky, differing, perhaps, has been founded by the most severe charter. The papacy left from under the power of emperors of Sacred Roman empire and has begun struggle for right to appoint the higher church hierarches. The Vormssky concordat (1122) has resulted this conflict - dispute for investituru - in the compromise permission. Meanwhile, the II First crusade declared by daddy Urbanom has lifted prestige of the most holy throne on new heights. To the beginning of next century Vatican already played a considerable role in the European policy, without being limited to purely spiritual influence. XII and XIII centuries are considered as an epoch of blossoming of a medieval civilisation.


the Birth of universities

Sharp increase of demand for the formed experts (officials, secretaries and lawyers) became One of results of general lifting that has led to occurrence and development of higher educational institutions of new type - universities. The Bolonsky university based in 1158 became the first of them. It have followed Parisian, Oxford, Cambridge and Heidelberg, and in XIV century universities operated already across all Europe.

During the same time for Latin - language of the western learning - many were translated earlier not known compositions of Ancient Greek authors. Opening new directions in such sciences as logic, the geometry, medicine and astronomy, these works generated serious intellectual problems for frequently contradicted the church doctrine. Many great thinkers the Middle Ages which have become history as philosophers-sholasty have devoted to the permission of these problems themselves. St. Foma Akvinsky (apprx. 1225-74), the author of the treatise "Рѕььр =хюыюушш" was greatest of them; reconciling belief and reason and to this day making a basis of philosophy of Catholicism.


Sacred poverty

The Italian of St. Frantsisk Assizsky (1182-1216), renounced the inheritance for the sake of a life in "ёт =ющ схфэюё=ш" was One of the most charming persons of the Middle Ages;. Its warm-heartedness and love to all real - to recollect at least its sermon to birds - have introduced a new shade in Christian belief which with contempt concerned before a material world. St. Frantsisk has based an award of the Franciscans which members have been obliged to observe vows of poverty, chastity and obedience, but lived in the world, collecting alms, preaching and creating mercy affairs. Its the nearest spodvizhnitsa St. Clara Assizskaja has based for women a similar award klariss. In the beginning of XIII century one more well-known begging award - Dominican has been based. However poverty and humility of St. Frantsiska at all their accord to evangelical spirit exposed the papal top which has wallowed in luxury and all church in unattractive light. To the middle of XIII century The daddy became specific the lord in Italy and simultaneously the head of the huge international organisation with perfectly debugged bureaucracy and the taxation mechanism. Leaning against flock support, clergymen everywhere occupied exclusive position and were podsudny only to special tribunals which where punished clergy, rather than laymen, for similar crimes more softly.

Hour of belief Meanwhile cities grew and grew rich, in a secular society appeared more and more competent people, in the people indignation of defects of church ripened. Besides, devout laymen aspired to play more active role in a religious life. From the middle of XII century this good eagerness was showed in erection of huge Gothic cathedrals that would be impossible without generous donations of townspeople.

Origin of heresies - the currents of the Christian belief dispersing with established daddies Catholic dogmatikoj became Extreme display of discontent by dominating church. In XII century in Provence (the south of France) there was a powerful heretical movement katarov, or albigojtsev which has started up so deep roots in those edges that daddy Innokenty III declared against them a crusade. Qatar were is almost universal are exterminated by king Louis VIII and the North French nobility which this for cleanliness of belief has brought the soldier huge material and political benefits.


Divergences in belief

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Some postulates of the doctrine katarov - first of all belief in primary perversity of a material world - in a root contradicted doctrines of Catholic church. Other sects, for example, valdensy, made the corner-stone of return to bible simplicity of a life, like that which was conducted by Jesus and its pupils, - and, certainly, distinct from luxury and arrogance in what the daddy and other hierarches of church have wallowed.

Similar ideas were preached also by St. Frantsisk, but it, nevertheless, remained in a bosom of church and later became one of its sacred. But after death of St. Frantsiska the award created by it has undergone to reorganisation in initial spirit, and against followers sacred, aspiring to keep not money-grubbing character of an award, severe retaliatory measures have been taken. In XIII century the relation of church to any displays of heterodoxy has become tougher, and in 1232 for struggle against heresy the sacred inquisition which has won gloomy glory has been founded.

During this period the Holy See has reached zenith of the political power, having put an end to attempts of emperors of Sacred Roman empire to keep the control over Germany and Italy. However new opponents have not kept itself waiting. In the beginning of XIV century monarchs of vigorously developing national states - for example, England and France, - keeping loyalty of church, nevertheless tried not to suppose extraneous intervention in the internal affairs; and among clergy formation of the concept of national church has begun. And at that o'clock when daddy Bonifatsy (1294-1303) has acted with the greatest in the history claims of a sacred throne on submission to itself of all secular lords, the power of the papal power has begun to decline, and original accident has shortly burst. The trouble has come to time of a pontificate (board) of daddy Klimenta V (1305-14) which actually became the captive of French king Phillip IV. In 1307 Kliment under the pressure of the king the award tamplierov, become famous for participation crusades and fabulous riches promoted destruction knightly. Mass arrests and the recognitions received under tortures have led to condemnation tamplierov for sorcery, arrangement to evil spirit and other bogoprotivnye acts authentic proofs were available which no means always. Many tampliery have been executed, and riches of an award have carried over the king.


papacy Easing

In 1309 Kliment has located in the south of France, in small town Avignon which till 1377 remained papal residence. During this period "ртшэіюэёъюую яыхэхэш " daddies have been doomed to a role of puppets of the French crown, and political intrigues and insatiable avidity of daddy John XXII (1316-34) only promoted the further discredit of the papal power.

But the worst was ahead. After a year after returning of daddy Grigory XI to Rome daddies it has appeared two. Election of Urbana VI (1378-89) was necessary not to liking to Frenchmen, and the group of mainly French cardinals has selected the antidaddy Klimenta VII (1378-97). So 40-year-old Great split has begun. France and its allies supported Klimenta, whereas England, Sacred Roman empire and their allies - Urbana.

Opposition proceeded up to 1409 when the church cathedral has decided to depose both daddies of that time and instead of them to select the new. But as daddies have not wished to renounce the power, position only has worsened, and the whole eight years in the Christian world was three daddies. The end to split has been put in 1417 on the Universal cathedral in Konstants (Germany) where all three daddies have been deposed, and on the most holy throne has ascended duly elected V.

Split managed to be overcome only by convocation of the universal cathedrals collecting representatives of all independent local churches, and at some instant it seemed, what exactly will belong to cathedrals all Supreme power. But after long struggle daddy Evgenie IV has managed to achieve the bypassing the Basel cathedral (1431-49), and since then all subsequent cathedrals invariably submitted to the daddy.


the Impudent call of church

With Much more terrible consequences the deaf peals of heterodoxy reaching from different corners of Europe were fraught. In England John Uiklif (apprx. 13.30-84) has fallen with attacks to church money-making, preaching that the Sacred writing, instead of the initial (church) right should be the supreme law. Later the same ideas were defended by Jan Gus (apprx. 1369-1415) in Bohemia (nowadays the western part of Czechia).

It is rather remarkable, as that, and another were engaged in a Bible translation on a colloquial national language. Revolutionary inherently idea - to give the chance to each person to read and interpret the Sacred writing - threatened to undermine exclusive position of clergy and indisputable authority of church. The majority of followers of Uiklifa - lollardy - have undergone to persecutions and executions. Gus by a deceit has been enticed on the Konstantssky cathedral, it is seized and burnt on a fire. But to pacify its fellow countrymen it has appeared not so easily. They have lifted revolt and, partly thanks to guns, have unexpectedly won in declared against them "ъЁхё=ютюь яю§юфх". Only Basel cathedral, having gone on a number of concessions, has pacified gusitov, and to the middle of XV century the church, appear, has safely got out of a never-ending train of the conflicts shaking its foundations within 150 years.