In the beginning of the first millenium of our era East European plain shared on three accurately enough outlined belts. The north and the northwest were occupied by the farmers who were clearing away wood for crops, living its gifts and protected by woods and bogs, both from invasions, and from external influences.
The Steppe was a habitat, battles and uncountable movings of the nomadic people coming from the East. Black Sea Coast since antiquity represented "тш=Ёшэѕ" a city civilisation - at first Ancient Greek, and then Byzantian.
The Slavs who already living on these earths or come from the West and have mixed up with more ancient population (the majority of modern historians places an ancestral home of Slavs in pool of Vistula and Pripyat) were Farmers of wood and forest-steppe zones basically. Obviously, already in II-IV centuries movement of the German tribes on the south leads to isolation of western and east Slavs, and after power falling gunnov in the end of V century slavic colonisation of Balkan peninsula and as a result - formation of a South slavic family of tribes begins. East Slavs occupy Top Podneprove and its northern periphery belonging to earlier Baltic and Finno-Ugric tribes, with territory increase there is a division into breeding groupings. In VII century east Slavs gradually leave from "=хэш woods on arena шё=юЁшш".
to the Glade and Kiev
Possibly, already by then they totaled 13 or 14 tribes most influential of which were to a glade, living on the average a current of Dnepr. Except the general animisticheskih beliefs and gods, they were united by language. The centralised power was absent. Elders were at the head of tribes and sorts, the earth and cattle were considered as the general property. The important questions dared on breeding descents in strengthened "уЁрфр§" under construction in the center of each group of settlements. At a following stage of development of an East slavic generality (VIII-IX centuries) With trade and agriculture lifting, these breeding centers have started to turn in rannefeodalnye cities. Kiev was a chief town of glades which, probably, in VII century have headed the union of the tribes which have become by the direct predecessor of the Old Russian state. The monument to the semilegendary founder of a city to prince Kiju, his brothers to Horivu the Cheek and their sister Lybedi - a bronze castle with four figures in chain armours - costs today in Kiev on river bank with which he is in many respects obliged by the value and the leading part.
From the Varangian in Greeks
The Monument representing a castle with soldiers, costs and in the Swedish city of Norchyopinge at east coast of the country. Soldiers are first Russian princes of Rjurik (Ryorik), Oleg (Olaf) and Igor (Ingvar).
Swedes, unlike chosen cities of the Western Europe of Norwegians and Danes, have taken part in formation of the state of the Kiev Russia. The sizes of this participation are to this day a subject of disputes among historians. A phrase of Nestora-Letopistsa how Slavs have invited rus (so, possibly, other people named in the beginning Varangians) "ъэ цш=і and to own шьш" it was widely quoted by supporters so-called. "эюЁьрэёъющ =хюЁшш" in the XVIII-beginning of XX centuries also it was ignored by the Soviet historians in 30-50th Today the majority of researchers agree that, moving ahead to the Black and Caspian seas, creating settlements-bases on a way to riches of Byzantium and the Islamic world, northern soldiers-merchants have played a role of the catalyst of already ripened jump in political development of east Slavs. Newcomers subordinated to themselves local population and united it, or Slavs united in the face of varjazhskoj threats, sometimes their interests coincided, and they together protected a trading way "т уЁхъш" also defended from nomads and hazar.
Considering archeological finds of last decades, scientists are more and more inclined to speak about occurrence of the Old Russian state as a result of difficult interaction slavic and varjazhskogo the beginnings. On the one hand, all Kiev governors and the most part of combatants carried the Scandinavian names till last third X century. With another, Svjatoslav Igorevich - only the third Kiev prince after Oleg. In Kiev, becoming a part of Old Russian elite, Varangians already through some generations were completely dissolved among the slavic population. Probably, therefore Kiev is mentioned in the Scandinavian sagas of that period seldom and casually while about Novgorod composing them skaldy knew much, including topographical details.
The Control over both main things "срчрьш" on a way "т уЁхъш" was, obviously, Oleg's primary goal, when in 882, according to Nestorovoj "¤ютхё=ш time ых=" it has sailed from Novgorod to Kiev at the head of a varjazhsko-slavic team. Taking with itself of juvenile Igor who letopisets names the son died by then konunga Rjurika, Oleg, having killed boyars of Askolda and Dira correcting in Kiev, declared it "ьр=хЁі¦ cities Ёѕёёъш§". Later, in 907, he has tried to finish the step to the logic end and to grasp Constantinople, but it had to be limited to rich extraction and the favourable contract with Byzantium.
the New earths
For 30 years prolonged "Ёхухэ=ё=тр" over Igor Oleg - it is doubtless, talented on lkovodets and the politician - has considerably expanded the possession. After glades it has laid under tribute drevljan and other next tribes that has caused war with hazarami, ended with a victory russov. Igor who in many respects has repeated of business of Oleg's reigning, but with ready smaller success, has begun and has ended with revolts drevljan, by hand which it was lost in 945 Severely having revenged drevljanam, his wife Olga nevertheless has understood that excesses with tribute gathering will ruin the arising state, and has entered the system of the taxation first in the Kiev Russia. In 955 it accepts Christianity, in two years - goes to Constantinople and carries on negotiations with the Byzantian emperor. This fact speaks about promptly growing authority of the Kiev Russia.
Board of son Igor and Olga Svjatoslava historians often finish the first period of history of the Kiev Russia. Having subordinated itself vjatichej, it has extended the power of Kiev to all east Slavs and has laid to the Old Russian state a way on the northeast, having intruded in Bulgaria, seriously threatened Byzantium, having crushed Hazaria kaganat, has eliminated the terrible contender still recently taking a tribute from glades, vjatichej and northerners. However, as often happens in the history, with disappearance hazar did not become and "сѕ¶хЁэющ чюэ№" on a way of much more dangerous nomads from the Asian steppes. The destruction of Svjatoslava oт hands pechenegov on the way home from Bulgaria became a sign on threat which will prevail over Russia more than one and a half centuries.
Vladimir christens Russia
This threat well Vladimir become by the Kiev prince after eight summer fratricidal race for power understood. Having strengthened southern borders and having constructed there a number of cities, he has started to search for more safe ways to Constantinople. Hа the West it has attached Galich and Volhynia which "яюф§тр= = чэрь " Kiev after its political decline in the middle of XII in But it is all in the future for now the Kiev Russia enters a blossoming epoch. Vladimir's possession have reached 800 thousand in sq. km - more than at someone another in Europe.
However Vladimir's the most considerable act is the christening of Russia. Its choice in favour of orthodox Christianity has directed a course of the East Europe history not less than on one thousand years. Not to mention that thanks to it Russia became a part of the Christian West, instead of the Muslim East, acceptance of a cross from hands of Byzantium, instead of Rome has defined historical destiny of east Slavs has put a basis of the future conflicts to the nearest neighbours.
Instant increase of authority of Vladimir (the Byzantian emperor marrying sister), its dynasty and all country was the Direct consequence of acceptance of Christianity. The state has received an ideological basis ("юфшэ god - one чрЁі"), a society - a source of the richest culture.
Yaroslav has begun reigning in Novgorod that has refused to render tribute to Kiev (1014), and only Vladimir's death has prevented war. But intestine war between brothers for the fatherly throne, turning on Russia in bloody tradition has repeated. The unity of the country was restored only 21 year later when Yaroslav has sat down, at last, on the Kiev throne. A name "¦ѕфЁ№щ" it has received not only that could continue and increase begun by the father. Reached at it of the top development of the Kiev Russia was showed in reform and ulozhenii laws in the general arch (the Russian truth), an all-round support of education, the basis Kiev mitropolii (1037), rough building of churches (at it in one only to their capital was more than 400) and monasteries.
Ensembles "уюёѕфрЁё=тхээюую эрчэрёхэш " First of all were under construction; - princely palaces and the monumental cathedrals symbolising greatness of new belief and power of power. Created as a whole on the Byzantian sample, church constructions have soon got characteristic Old Russian and local lines. At Yaroslav the Sofia cathedrals in Kiev (1037), Novgorod (1045) and Polotsk (sered have been erected. XI century). Later the Uspensky cathedral of Kievo-Pecherskogo of a monastery (1073-78), Mihajlovsky Zlatoverhy a cathedral (1108-13) and Kirillovsky church (sered have been constructed. XII century) in Kiev, Uspensky and Borisoglebsky cathedrals in Chernigov (XII century). Soon after the basis в1051 Kievo-Pecherskogo of a monastery there from Sofia mitropolii moves the center of Old Russian annals, in XII century the monastery receives the monastery status - one of the most influential man's monasteries in Orthodoxy.
the Byzantian bishops, coming to Russia, carried with itself copyists and icon painters; episcopacies became the centers of distribution of literacy and culture. Has accelerated development of an Old Russian society and that fact that Constantinople, unlike Rome, allowed to conduct to the turned people divine service and to read the Bible on a native language. So created by Cyril and Mefodiem the alphabet became a basis of writing for bolshej to a part orthodox, and Church Slavonic language - the third, after Ancient Greek and Latin, language of a medieval western civilisation.
At Yaroslav Rus, thanks to the increased force and influence (and, as consequence, and to dynastic communications), has strongly entered into a family of the European people, "тхфюьр and ёы№°шьр" as its metropolitan Ilarion, "тёхьш chetyrmi kontsi чхьыш". wrote
Management, however, remains an Achilles' heel of the Kiev state. To it there were also economic reasons. As possibilities for international trade were narrowed (attacks of nomads, economic recession in Byzantium), soldiers-merchants became large landowners. But unlike the Western Europe where possession of the earth was put in dependence on service sjuzerenu, the patrimonial right in Russia kept the earth for boyars even if they passed to service to other prince. Using the material independence, boyars, as a rule, lived in cities and easily changed the "яЁшт чрээюё=ш".
That Yaroslav, despite all diligence to avoid "эрёыхфё=тхээющ illness р¦Ёшъютшёхщ" was even worse; he became which victim in due time, and could not enter effective system prestolonasledovanija. Zaveshchannaja it the seniority and rotation scheme on which possibility to correct was given to each son by Kiev, worked, only while senior Jaroslavichi made common cause. As a result of defeat (1068) incorporated armies from large forces polovtsev, come in the stead pechenegam in southern steppes, their triumvirate has broken up. The new period of intestine wars for Kiev has begun. Many princes deprived by system of rotation of real chance of inheritance (them named derelicts), willingly used "ѕёыѕурьш" polovtsev in a race for power.
The Most influential leaders have tried to stop fratricide, having offered at a meeting near Kiev in 1097 a principle of transition of a throne of specific princes by right of succession. Concerning the Kiev, however, the consent it was not possible to reach.
Only huge authority and popularity on Vladimir Monomaha's who has carried out people before to occupy a grand-ducal throne in 1113г., tens successful campaigns against polovtsev, have allowed it to hold 12 years Russia in unity and the world. On bright expression letopistsa, Vladimir Monomah "ьэюую to sweat has wiped for Russian чхьы¦". His son Mstislavu Great managed to win still polovtsev and to send their princes to Byzantium (1129). With his death in 1132 an epoch of Really Kiev Russia the dissociation period has come to the end and has begun.
First this period was characterised both strengthening "Ёхушюэрышчьр" and even more severe struggle for the Kiev throne. What so attracted applicants? Despite decrease in the value for trade (ruin by crusaders of Constantinople in 1204 and a fast decline Baghdad halifata have deprived Kiev not only the largest commodity markets, but also strong point roles on a way from Northern Europe on the East), Kiev remained a tidbit. It continued to develop and on boundary ХII-ХIII centuries was one of the largest cities of Europe. By estimations, its population during this time made 40 thousand persons - in 8-9 times more, than in most considerable of approximately 100 big cities and villages of Russia, even such important as Chernigov or Galich, in the European scale, London has reached such sizes only a century later. However more and more princes understood that their well-being and the power depend first of all on their own specific possession, and did not wish to participate not only in raspre for Kiev, and and in obshcherusskih actions.
The sizes of territory dictated a difference of interests, and local conditions - distinctions in a political system. Great Novgorod, for example, was a member of the trading union of the Baltic cities (Hansa), and merchants had the greatest influence in veche - democratic self-government institutions. Galitsky and Volynsk princedoms have been inaccessible to the main enemies of Kiev, polovtsev, but constrained an impact the Magyar, Poles and litvy. In these earths the political weight of the boyars who have grown rich on trade by salt was especially great. Galichane one of the first have separated from Kiev, but the galitsko-Volynsk prince the Novel, having extended in the beginning of XIII century the power to the Kiev and Pereja-Slavlsky princedoms, has most close approached to association of the earths of the Kiev Russia. With it Byzantium, Poland and Hungary were considered, and daddy Innokenty III even offered it a royal crown in exchange for transition in a Catholicism, but was refused. Unfortunately for Russia, the prince the Novel was got involved in affairs of the Polish princes, in 1205 Has got to the ambush arranged with Poles and has been killed. And the most terrible enemy already pulled from depths of Asia. In 1223 Slavs have met Mongols on the river Kalka and have suffered defeat. Under condition of unity, they had more enough time to be prepared for new blow - the whole 14 years.