In the beginning of XIII century from bowels of Asia an avalanche the armies of the severe tataro-Mongolian nomads which have ruined China, the Near East and Europe have rushed. Under Genghis Khan leadership they have created the world's largest empire.
At a history dawn the settled people of the Old World which was engaged in basic agriculture, lived in fear before tribes with perfect otherwise lives. It were tribes of the cattlemen-nomads overtaking the herds from one pasture on another in process of revolution of the season. The earths to the north from territory of modern Mongolia were their native land, where they conducted a way of life typical for cattlemen, planting sheep, goats and horses thanks to whom received all necessary for a life: food (meat, cheese and cottage cheese), clothes (a wool and skins), koumiss (the begun to ferment horse milk), used as a strong drink, and the felt produced from a wool by which the skeleton of portable dwelling of Mongols, yurtas became covered. They lived clans and tribes. Each tribe had leader, or the khan selected the breeding nobility.
The Situation has changed with coming to power of Temudzhina, still the boy of the lost father - the leader of a tribe. Having passed through heartrending experiences in a youth, Temudzhin has grown the severe and unshakable person who has gradually eliminated all contenders, has united the tataro-Mongolian tribes under the individual board and has created fanatically betrayed to it and the disciplined army. In its 1206 have proclaimed Genghis Khan, i.e. "тырё=хышэюь ьшЁр".
Fire and a sword
Within the next twenty years Genghis Khan has made much to justify the name. It has won Northern China, has grasped and has plundered its capital Beijing. The steppe states in the west have been subdued and attached to quickly growing Tataro-Mongolian empire. Prospecting expedition which has as a result broken army of Russia and other armies sent against it has gone to a campaign through the Caucasian mountains. After that Genghis Khan has performed the most brilliant operation. Tataro-Mongols have ruined the well-known cities of Bukharas and Samarkand, and during the subsequent campaigns completely liquidated sultanat, on the way having cut out some big cities, and have released to itself road to depth of peninsula Hindustan, to the Indus. The countries grasped by tataro-Mongols, came to such decline that at some people centuries on restoration of the economy have left.
Genghis Khan Heritage
In 1224 Genghis Khan has been compelled to return from India for revolt suppression to Mongolia, and in 1227 his death has interrupted its gains. Besides huge empire, it has left to the successors the code of laws and administrative apparatus which it has generated from true to itself(himself) the people belonging to different races and religions. Thereby it has put traditions thanks to which domination of tataro-Mongols has remained forever. Besides, he has created system of the message on the basis of the horse posts located on certain distance from each other.
the Race for power
Genghis Khan Successor, his son Ogdaj, has even more expanded empire. It has based in Mongolia capital, Karakorum, has finished conquest of Northern China and has opened the way in depth of Europe, having grasped Russian princedoms and having broken the Polish, German and Hungarian armies. The Western Europe from a gain was rescued only by sudden death of Ogdaja after which tataro-Mongols have receded.
It was followed by the long period on which extent Mongols did not have a great khan, and, fortunately for the West, finally come to power successor Ogdaja, Mangu has paid the attention to other regions. In 1258 brother Mangu, Hulagu svergnul weakened halifat abbasidov also has plundered Bagdad.
At this time the territory in the Near East where tataro-Mongols dominated, has already reached the western limit after repulse to their attack to Syria, rendered by the Egyptian Mamelukes. Mangu has grasped Southern China which gain after his death was finished by his brother and successor Kublajhan.
By this time the Tataro-Mongolian empire has started to break up on some large independent khanates. Remaining the great khan, Kublajhan still rules them, but the basic center of its power has moved to China where it has based the imperial dynasty Yuan reigning till 1368. Hulagu has based a powerful dynasty of Ilhan for the period of which board it is necessary blossoming of the Persian culture. The Gold horde dominating in Russia concerns number of the other powerful tataro-Mongolian states Great, or
(the word "юЁфр"ючэрёрыю only "ё=ю эър ъюёхтэшъют" is primary;), and khanate in Central Asia which in the end of the fourteenth century left one more undoubtedly very strong conqueror, Timur, or Tamerlan, is not enough that left after itself, except for improbable ruin on the scales.
From great khanates only the Gold horde has existed till XV century, however Timur Babur's descendant has based a dynasty of Great Moguls in India, long keeping in power, and some smaller khanates played a part in the history to the twentieth century.
Communications of the West with the East
Despite all disasters brought by tataro-Mongols, their history had positive value, especially for Europe. Existence of the huge, well organised Euroasian empire on which it was possible to travel safely, has considerably improved communications of the West with the East. So, most well-known of all medieval travellers, Marco Polo, in second half XIII centuries during the travel has managed to pass through the tataro-Mongolian territories and to be arranged on service to Kublajhanu. Through Marco Polo both other travellers the goods and inventions which have played subsequently a huge role in western civilisation development, for example, gunpowder and a press invented by Chineses, have got on the West.
With disintegration of the Tataro-Mongolian empire contacts between the East and the West have again begun to decline. Trade has really renewed only in XV century when European morehody have opened a new sea way on the East.