Peninsula Hindustan - the richest region with difficult and rough history. Great religions Here arose, arose and empires fell, but not passing originality of the Indian culture from century to century remained. Throughout many centuries all territory of peninsula was occupied with Ancient India, and only in 1947 its section on four independent states - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka (the former Ceylon) has taken place.
About 2500 BC in a valley of Indus one of the most ancient in the world of civilisations has arisen. It erected from a brick the big, perfectly planned cities with a waterpipe and has created pictographic writing which yet did not manage to be deciphered. Therefore our knowledge about indskoj to culture rather ogranichenny. Its prompt decline apprx. 1750 BC, apparently, has been caused by natural accident because of what India on kind one thousand years remained without writing.
the Valley of Indus lies in the subcontinent northwest in the relative neighbourhood with the most ancient world culture - Sumer. Between them for certain there were commercial relations, and it is quite probable that Sumer if has not impulsed to origin indskoj to a civilisation has made on its impact. Throughout all Indian history the main way of intrusion new idea and aggressors there was a northwest. All other ways to India have been so blocked by mountains, woods and the seas that, for example, the great Chinese civilisation almost has not left in it traces. From the northwest in II millenium strangers BC have come, whose intrusion has in many respects defined the future of India. It were nomad tribes ariev, owning the bronze weapon and fighting chariots. Being, apparently, from edges to the east from Caspian sea, they throughout many centuries got into India through the Afghani passes. Eventually, they were settled across all Northern India and instead of nomadic animal industries were engaged in agriculture.
To the Subdued local population - basically dravidijskim to tribes with more dark skin - the role of citizens of the lowest grade in the north has been prepared, however in the south they managed to keep independence. Geographical barriers did the south remote, and its development proceeded separately though and there from the north religious and cultural influences constantly got.
Formation of India
Aryan conquerors have brought with themselves worship gods of Varune and to Indre personifying forces of the nature, a caste of priests (brahmanov) and ritual sacrifices of animals. Their sacred hymns later have been collected in four books known as "-хф№" because of what the religion has received the name vedicheskoj. Having undergone many changes for thousand years, it has found the form modern induizma which still is religion of many Indians and esteems "-хф№" the Holy Writ. A Sanskrit on which are written "-хф№" became a literary language of India. Despite development numerous "эрЁюфэ№§" languages, the Sanskrit has kept to this day the value and prestige like Latin in medieval Europe.
the Exclusive system
The Aryan society shared on four main classes or castes: brahmanov, the military nobility, peasants and (after) merchants, and also servants. Servants and those who did not belong to one caste - them later named "эхяЁшърёрхь№ьш" - were almost deprived of civil rights in comparison with the higher castes. This system served as the form of the racial control, keeping dravidijskie tribes in humility to Aryan misters.
Eventually it more and more became tougher and became complicated, dividing people into more and more small groups and subgroups. As a result to each person certain position in a society and an occupation were taken away by the right of a birth, it was authorised to eat only the food ordered to its caste and to marry only representatives of the caste. This severe and unfair system was based on induistskom the doctrine about karme. According to it, each live being received in this life the award or a penalty for the acts made in one of former lives, therefore social prinizhennost was an obvious sign on sinfulness. The exclusive system has strongly taken roots in the Indian society and, despite all attempts of the government to break ancient class barriers, is live up to now.
In VI century BC the rigid exclusive system, omnipotence of priests and ritual sacrificial aspects induizma have cleared two mighty reformist religious trends to a life. They have found numerous adherents, but, without having managed to replace with itself induizm, have turned to independent religions though divided induistskuju belief in a life as infinite circular motion of births, death and the reincarnations, predetermined karmoj.
Based Mahaviroj dzhajnizm was One of these currents. The nonviolence, negation of exclusive division of a society and life honouring in its forms ("р§шьёр" were its basic postulates;). Last principle was observed so strictly that dzhajny tried to do the utmost inadvertently not to crush even an insect.
Dzhajnizm has started up deep roots in the India, but has not found special distribution outside of subcontinent. But the Buddhism could become one of the greatest world religions. Its founder Siddhartha Gautama (apprx. 535 - apprx. 483 to and. e.) the Buddha ("яЁюётх=ыхээ№щ" became known under a name;) . Tell that he was born in a family of the sovereign prince and has grown in luxury and content, but has felt a deep shock, for the first time having faced death and sufferings. Having reached enlightenments after long searches of true, it has spent the life rest, preaching "РЁхфшээ№щ яѕ=і" named so because the person going on him does not aspire neither to luxury, nor to asceticism (to refusal of the elementary everyday blessings). The Buddha preached moderation, compassion and equality of all people. But the postulate that the reason of sufferings - human desires was the main thing in its doctrine. Therefore refusal of desires allows soul to be pulled out from an eternal circle of regenerations and to reach a condition of pleasure (nirvana).
Kingdoms and empires
Meanwhile Old Indian kingdoms conducted constant internal wars, and the northwest has gradually fallen under influence of Persia and Greece. Alexander the Great, having broken empire of Persians, has moved a campaign to India and has had time to inflict defeat over the Indian tsar by name the Time, but has been compelled to turn back under the insisting of the tired to death army.
In rendering of repulse of army of Alexander, probably, the founder of a great dynasty Maurev Chandragupta (apprx. 321 - apprx. 297) participated. Mauri were the first (and the last for 2000) the lords correcting almost all peninsula from the capital Pataliputra, the ancient India constructed in heart on a river Ganges beret.
Most outstanding of a dynasty Maurev was tsar Ashoka (apprx. 274 - apprx. 236 BC) . It has begun career as the conqueror, but, having got tired of bloodshed, has addressed in the Buddhism. Apparently, he tried to live according to the belief, financing public works and preaching the citizen a nonviolence and tolerance. Rock paintings and the carved columns placed by Ashokoj in all corners of its boundless possession concern the major monuments of an epoch Maurev. Ashoka has directed to other earths buddistskih missionaries, and their successful activity in Burma and on Ceylon has begun Buddhism distribution to all East Asia. Buddhist art and architecture prospered and in the India, despite prompt decline of empire Maurev after death of Ashoki. After the next period of dissociation in IV century BC the north has again united under the power of a dynasty Guptov. Inspired by revival induizma, the Indian culture has reached new heights, having given to the world great poetic and drama masterpieces on a Sanskrit and having brought to perfection a sculpture and the architecture pleasing an eye by riches of forms. Considerable development was received by mathematics and astronomy. In particular, the world is obliged by concept of zero and decimal system of the account of India epoch Guptov. In V and VI centuries Gupty have successfully reflected an impact white gunnov, but the empire exhausted by wars has broken up.
Eventually it became obvious that in a shower of the simple people the Buddhism cannot compete with revived induizmom, and in IX century its fast decline has begun. But now induizmu it was necessary to face much more terrible external opponent - Islam.
Islam was the militant religion preaching existence of uniform god and a uniform way to rescue of soul. Its postulates strikingly differed from doctrines induizma that did almost impossible peaceful co-existence induistov and Moslems. This religious conflict has played - and continues to play - the major role in the Indian history, having defined ways of present section of peninsula on the independent states.
In the beginning of VII century the first groups of Moslems have intruded in India, have won Sind at northwest coast and have moved further to depth of peninsula. But only in the end of X century the Turkic dynasty of lords from Ghazni (present Afghanistan) has subdued Punjab and has attached it to the Central Asian empire Gur. Variety of ruinous attacks on deep areas of India has weakened small kingdoms, but serious attempts to win all peninsula have been undertaken only next century when new, more vigorous dynasty has come to power in Ghazni.
In 1192 the most outstanding representative of a new dynasty of Mahmud from Gura has intruded in northern part of India, has crushed the confederation which has opposed it of local lords and has put the deputy of Delhi of the Turkic slave. For years of board of the dynasty based by it Guljamov, Delhi has turned to capital mighty sultanata which power has extended to all northern India. Thus northern Indian kingdoms have not undergone to defeat, and only became vassals of Delhi lords, and their population was not universal is turned into Islam. Nevertheless, the new religion step by step extended in India, and in Indian kulture all has more considerably started to be shown influence Islamic, frequently the Persian art and architecture.
Delhi sultanat has endured many launches and falling while, at last, has not fallen in 1398 under blows of the Mongolian conqueror Timur who has devastated its territory. However, the subsequent conquerors have brought more creative contribution to history of India, having based the most brilliant Muslim empire - empire of Great Moguls.