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Queen Elizabeth I

Queen Elizabeth I out of any doubts has proved that the woman can correct England not worse, than any man. During an epoch of its long board which have got monarhine love and respect of the people, the country has resisted many troubles and successfully resisted to powerful Spain.

Elizabeth who has become history as Gloriana (from gloria - glory) and the Queen-virgin, was the true daughter of the picturesque father Henry VIII, always exemplifying to it. It as a real man firmly corrected almost 45 years, combining resoluteness with in a female way crafty diplomacy, and has helped the kingdom to resist political enemies in the country and behind its limits.

the Golden Age of England

The So-called Elizavetinsky epoch - second half of XVII-th century - is considered one of the most interesting periods in the history of England. Blossoming of fine arts and poetry, music and theatre, William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlo's plays, the greatest monuments of the English-speaking literature, fine, thin poetry of Edmunda Spensera and Filipa of Sydney, opening of the new earths far from Europe Frensisom Drake, Uolterom Rejli, Matthew Frobisherom, Hemfri Gilbert and Richard Grenvillom who transfer to a crown the treasures grasped in the Spanish colonies... Elizabeth never was even in the next France, but encouraged feats of the morehodov as zealously, as well as works of court poets and playwrights.

Waited for the son

When Elizabeth Tjudor was born (in the Greenwich palace near London, on September, 7th, 1533), her father Henry VIII was rather dissatisfied - after all he desperately wanted the son. He even has divorced from the first wife, Ekaterina Aragonskoj, only that she has given birth to it to the daughter.

The former maid of honour Anna Bolejn was Elizabeth's Mother. When the Pope has not agreed to divorce Henry of the permission on with Ekaterina and marriage with Anna, the king has torn with a sacred throne and has proclaimed itself the head of new church of England, having resolved itself subsequently both divorce, and second marriage.

England after Henry

Elizabeth grew in village, has got good education, being trained together with the stepbrother, prince Edward. Their lives the end in 1547 the King has together come has died, long live king Edward! Edward VI was poor health and has died fifteen years old, six years later. The queen have proclaimed Henry Maria's oldest daughter. The convinced Catholic, it has returned church of England in a bosom of Rome. However, in the country there were many Protestants, wishing to have the church which is not submitting to the daddy. Elizabeth too was the Protestant - and was the first pretender to an English crown belonging to the stepsister.

Bloody Mary

In 1544 when Maria declared marriage with Phillip Ispanskim, Protestant excitements have begun, at the head of rebels there was Thomas Uajett. Accused of support of rebels Elizabeth by miracle has saved the life, having got off with a two-month imprisonment in a Tower, discharge a court yard and dispatch from capital.

Maria has lost all popularity. It has burnt on fires of 300 Protestants, the people have nicknamed its Bloody Mary. When in 1558 she has died, all exulted. It did not have children, and Elizabeth became the new queen. On November, 17th - day of its accession to the throne - was many long years marked as a holiday.

the Queen in works

To Correct England to Elizabeth its Privy Council and Parliament helped. She listened to them, but all decisions accepted personally. Appointment as William Sesila's first minister, subsequently - lord Berli was one of the first decrees of the new queen, it belief and the truth will serve to Elizabeth more than forty years.

All have been assured that Elizabeth will marry and will get successors, but, having fascinated many men, the queen has taken nobody in marriage. Perhaps, it would not like to divide England with the crowned spouse.

The New queen was the moderate Protestant and approved rupture of the father with the Daddy, but it liked separate rituals and ceremonies of Catholics, in particular, - worship the sacred crucifixion According to the law accepted in the beginning of its board, Elizabeth has appeared at the head of Anglican church. The new prayer book entered by her answered representations both moderated, and radical Protestants. In 1563 the doctrine elizavetinskoj has been stated church in the arch of doctrines known as "39 ё=р=хщ".

The bases Put by Elizabeth mezhkonfessionalnyh relations have remained up to now, however in days of it vlastvovanija to Anglican church resisted as the Catholics supported by France and Spain, and the puritans considering with true Protestants and wishing at all to clear English church from "яряёъш§ шчыш°хё=т".

Throughout first ten years of board it was possible to Elizabeth to keep quite good relations with Spain and France, but then there were friction. Protestant communities in France and the Netherlands staying under the Spanish oppression asked protection and though Elizabeth and Sesil did not burn with the desire to come to the rescue of them from England, other members of Royal council - in particular, columns Leicester and sir Frensis Uolsingem - considered differently.

Maria Shotlandskaja

One more problem for Elizabeth was represented by the queen of Scotland Maria, its close relative on a fatherly line. Elizabeth was the grand daughter, and Maria Stewart - the great-granddaughter of the king of England Henry VII, and, die Elizabeth childless, the throne of England would get to Maria. Catholic Maria in the opinion of all Catholics was the original queen of England: they considered that parents Elizabeth in sacred marriage did not consist and that its rights to a throne, thus, were illegal. Catholics annoyed Elizabeth during all period of its board, into their plans entered to deprive the queen of the power and to give Maria's English crown.

Queen Elizabeth I pressure between England and Spain In the meantime grew. Elizabeth has allowed to come to the Dutch Protestants into English harbours, and English naval commanders have started to operate in waters of a New World supervised by Spaniards. John Gokins became the first Englishman who has brought slaves from the Western Africa to the Spanish West Indies. When its ships have been attacked by the Spanish squadron numerically surpassing them in a gulf San Juan, Gokins together with the associate Frensisom Drake has accepted battle and has escaped, having lost all fleet. Subsequently Drake revenged for this defeat, defiantly attacking the Spanish vessels. Elizabeth had to listen to claims of former son-in-law Phillip, nowadays - the king of Spain dissatisfied with a piracy of Englishmen which Englishmen softly called kaperstvom.

In 1568 Protestants of Scotland have risen. Queen Maria has been compelled to leave the country, a throne and son Jacob. It has taken cover in England and has addressed to Elizabeth for the help, but Elizabeth has imprisoned her in the north of England where has kept the relative almost 20 years. In the meantime Maria's grown by the local Protestant nobility the son which already was in power, has been proclaimed by the king of Scotland VI.

War with Spain

Relations between England and Spain were heated in the beginning of 1580th years. Phillip has decided to finish excitements of Protestants in the Netherlands and at the same time to occupy England - a stronghold protestanstva. In 1585 Elizabeth has agreed to render the military help to the Dutch rebels. It meant the beginning of war with Spain.

A Year later Frensis Uolsingem, the head of secret service of the queen, has opened one more internal plot, pursuing the purpose to kill Elizabeth and to lead the authorities Maria Shotlandskuju. All advisers of the queen insisted on execution of traitress Maria who have supported plot, and Elizabeth has unwillingly agreed.

Maria's Execution in 1587 has untied hands to Phillip - now it had all reasons to intrude in England. He has been convinced that if Maria lived and in due course has come to power in the England won by Spaniards, its liking would belong not to the Spanish crown, and France as it was half the Frenchwoman, and Phillip wished to subdue not simply England, but also as much as possible to vex the enemies to Frenchmen. Phillip has collected huge fleet from 130 ships (on them 7000 sailors and 17 000 soldiers found room) and has named its Armada. Englishmen, in turn, have equipped 102 ships.

The Spanish vessels have been noticed for the first time at coast of Southwest England on July, 19th, 1588. On all road to London fires were lighted, the message has reached capital. The fleet under command of lord Howard Effingtona and Frensisa Drake's its right hand left Plymouth and, having overcome head winds, has entered into La Manche. When the Armada has approached to the French port of Calais to pick up a 30-thousand army, two misfortunes have fallen upon it at once.

Fight at Graveline

First, the army has got stuck in the Netherlands, beating off from local rebels, and at the necessary o'clock did not appear. Secondly, at Calais Drake attacked the Spanish fleet the courts filled with an explosive. Many Spanish ships have lighted up, the armada has dissipated.

Next day (Monday, on August, 8th) Englishmen have gone over to the offensive at Graveline, to the north from Calais. The victory was already declined on the party of Englishmen when the strong wind has blown and has sent on errands the Spanish vessels to the North Sea, to coast of Scotland. Englishmen pursued Spaniards while at them an ammunition has not come to an end. The worried fight and a storm the ships tried to return to Spain, having rounded Scotland and Ireland, many have broken about rocks. In total Spaniards have lost more than 60 courts and almost 20 thousand persons. Phillip Ispanskogo's plans have failed. England has been rescued. However, Phillip and sent henceforth the squadrons to coast of England, but its any fleet was not so dangerous as the Great Armada broken in 1588.

the Royal court yard

Queen Elizabeth I Elizabeth held a brilliant court yard. The magnificent retinue accompanied it in the London or country palaces - Gempton court, Greenwich, Richmond, Uajtholl, Windsor. Richmond was a favourite palace of the queen. In London it never stopped in a Tower, to it two months of an imprisonment in days of board of sister Maria and as contemporaries testified were remembered, the sounds published by inhabitants of a royal menagerie nearby prevented to sleep. Every summer Elizabeth went in "т№ёюёрщ°хх яѕ=х°хё=тшх" across Southern and the Central England (on the north she did not get out never). The queen was accompanied by some hundreds court and servants. The train stopped at pomestnyh noblemen that was for them doubtful pleasure: in recalculation on present money one day of stay of the queen and its servants flew in hundred thousand pounds!


Round the queen some grandees always were twisted, it preferred whose society. She named their favourites and demanded from them love and firm fidelity, thus wives of favourites at all left from a court yard. Happen to the favourite, to marry without Elizabeth's blessing, it could appear in a Tower, - as happens with sir Uolterom Rejli in 1592.

Elizabeth has died on March, 24th, 1603 at the age of 69 years. She and did not name the successor. When the queen lay on the deathbed, its first minister Robert Sesil has sent signal to Scotland to inform Jacob to VI Scottish that its time has come. The history has disposed so that on the throne which has become empty after Elizabeth the son of its competitor Maria who have become by the king of England I.

has come