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Radical Americans

the Radical people of the North America there is no time occupied all continent, living in harmony with the nature. Arrival to a New World of the European settlers has made disastrous impact on their traditional way of life.

Primitive people have appeared in the North America for 35.000 years BC, having removed from present Siberia in those days when it was connected to Alaska by an overland isthmus. Newcomers were settled on all Northern and to the South America, adapting to new conditions and forming various tribes.

Radical Americans One people were fed with hunting or fishery, others have learnt to cultivate the land. Different tribes built the different types of dwellings answering to conditions of their life. For example, portable tents (tipi) were ideally suited for nomadic hunters of prairies, such as, for example, a tribe chernonogih. And the people pueblo built samannye huts to take cover from scorching heat of native desert. Each radical people of America have created the original language and culture. Up the time of occurrence of Europeans in both Americas was over 300 American Indian tribes and adverbs. In 1492 Columbus the first of Europeans has met radical Americans on island Cuba. He named them "los indios" considering that has landed at east coast of India. Since then Indians began to name all radical people of both Americas.

Spaniards the first of Europeans have started to develop the new earths. Having reached in 1513 Florida, they were there as conquerors. They based small settlements, forced natives to a slave labour on plantations and spread Christianity, forcing them to refuse religion of ancestors.

Spaniards were settled along all southeast coast of the North America, and then and on the earths of present Texas. With their occurrence in a life of many American Indian people there have come dramatic changes. Before arrival of the white person to America there were no horses, and just during that epoch local tribes began to buy them from Europeans.

In the XVII-th century beginning at East coast have started up the first roots English and Dutch settlers. Unlike Spaniards, they have arrived here to live and be fed with own work and consequently seemed harmless. Many radical people have first met them hospitably and even helped, as trade with Europeans has brought it fire-arms, iron tools and other goods.

the First conflicts

But already soon misunderstanding and disputes between white and Indians have led to armed clashes. In 1636 settlers of Massachusetts have decided to revenge Indians of a tribe pekot for not proved murder of two dealers and have interrupted the whole village totaling 500 inhabitants.

Almost till the end of a XVIII-th century radical Americans resisted to an impact of Europeans. Englishmen, Frenchmen and Spaniards were at war among themselves for the power over a New World, and many tribes acted on this or that party. They were at war on either side of and in War for independence which has ended with a victory of the American colonists over Englishmen and a birth of the United States of America. Allies of Englishmen irokezov were comprehended after war by a severe penalty. Forty villages it has been destroyed, and the broken people are expelled to Canada.

Radical Americans XVIII-th century Wars were conducted with the ruthless cruelty, any party did not disdain tortures and massacre. Some American Indian tribes differed special ferocity, and in those days one of the most disgusting customs - removal of scalps widely practised. A scalp are cut off with top of the killed enemy hair together with a skin. Europeans encouraged this practice, paying awards to the American Indian allies for each scalp. This awful custom has remained among Indians and white and in a XIX-th century. After a victory of the American revolution conflicts between the European people of the North America have almost stopped. And then aboriginals of newborn republic began to supersede persistently from the native earths or forced to sell or concede to their white settlers, moving in a reservation. The government pursued a policy of clarification of the country from all Indians, even from "чштшышчютрээ№§ яыхьхэ" adopted clothes and a way of life of the white person.

To the beginning of 1830th years any resistance to this policy from outside the tribes living to the east from Mississipi, has stopped. Further on the West Great Plains which were considered too droughty and severe for development by white people lay. The government of the USA has decided to supersede American Indian tribes to Great Plains which henceforth should belong to Indians, "яюър the grass grows and flow Ёхъш".

the Track of tears

To number of the expelled tribes belonged cheroki. They tried to protest this decision in court, but in 1838 all of them equally deported to Oklahoma. This transition was included into memory of people as "КЁюяр ёыхч" for the quarter of all tribe was lost for hunger, deprivations and illnesses.

But also on Great Plains Indians were not going to leave alone, "яюър the grass grows and flow Ёхъш". When in 1849 gold has been found in California, through American Indian hunting grounds caravans of vans with thousand gold diggers have moved. Behind them new settlers were pulled. And when for protection of pioneers armies there have been entered, the conflict became inevitable.

Long time inhabitants of prairies resisted to changes which were brought with itself by the white person. The nomadic way of life of these born hunters has made their skilful equestrians and arrows, original masters of guerrilla war who could not be tracked down in their native territory. But eventually Indians have been compelled to obey. Destruction bizonih herds white hunters became possibly, main reason of their defeat. Before threat of starvation to Indians does not remain anything other how to refuse a nomadic way of life and to move in a reservation.

Radical Americans However Indians siu have shown serious resistance and battled with white in three wars. When gold was revealed and on their earth, in sacred Black mountains of South Dakota the fourth war with the government has begun. In this war general George Kaster and more than 200 its soldiers were lost in 1876 in legendary "яюёыхфэхь to fight -рё=хЁр" at the river Litl-Bighorn. One say that Kaster was ambushed to Indians, others assert that he precipitately attacked large American Indian camp. Ruthless winter campaign of army of the USA in which course the Sitting Bull has been superseded to Canada became a consequence of this defeat, and the others siu have compelled to surrender.

Definitive suppression

By then almost all Indians of Great Plains have been moved from native places and tired out in a reservation. Living conditions in them were heavy enough from time to time to provoke mutinies or runaways, but last flash of resistance has gone out in 1886 when the leader of apaches of Dzheronimo has surrendered to the authorities. And four years battle at a stream of Vunded-Ni later has taken place. It was at all battle, and the bloody slaughter, arranged to Indians siu soldiers of 7th cavalry regiment in which result was lost over 250 men, women and children. Actually, army have caused to suppress a new religious cult, so-called "яы ёъѕ фѕ§ют" which, on beliefs of Indians, should relieve them from white and return in prairie of bisons. But soldiers, apparently, have decided to revenge for defeat at Litl-Bighorn. Doomed to poverty and oblivion, radical Americans have been completely demoralised and have started to die out promptly. The authorities took great pain to destroy a breeding way of life - ostensibly to divide the American Indian earths into private possession. Any "шчыш°ъш" Indians were grasped by white settlers, and with 1880 for 1930th years, anyhow, have lost two thirds of earths remaining with them.

In 1924 radical Americans have found, at last, the American citizenship. Many, understanding that return to a former life will not be, have got over in cities. But there they have simply changed poverty of reservations for poverty of city slums. To I960 number of the American Indian population has started to grow gradually, and they, like other national minorities, have entered struggle for the civil rights. Despite of bad formation, unemployment and a racial discrimination, many aspired to revive the national consciousness, and to the beginning of 1990th years number of radical Americans has grown approximately to 2 million.