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Scientific revolution

In XVI-XVII it. The European science left on new boundaries. The advanced thinkers, having investigated the Universe by means of scientific devices, have drawn absolutely new picture of a universe and a mankind place in it.

Scientific revolution became possible thanks to dynamical development of the society which have already reached of considerable technological progress. The fire-arms, gunpowder and the ships, capable to cross oceans, have allowed Europeans to open, investigate and plot a considerable part of the world, and the publishing invention meant that any zadokumentirovannaja the information quickly became accessible to scientists of all continent. Since XVI century, the interrelation between a society, a science and technics became more and more close as progress in one of knowledge areas pushed to development of others.

the Way to progress

Except for several brilliant opening, in the late Middle Ages the scientific thought conceded in development to technological inventions. The technics was engaged in practical things which either worked, or is not present. The science studied the nature and Universe laws. Progressive ideas often encountered fierce resistance. In particular, new theories were included into the contradiction with religious dogmas in an explanation of the natural phenomena, to call in question which was considered as the inadmissible.

Till XVI century which are considered as the beginning of a modern era, the sight at the Universe, based on theories of Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 BC) and the Greek astronomer Ptolemeja who has developed them (II century d.C.) prevailed. Doctrines of Greeks and Romans had the big authority on the Western world, especially if they were comprehensible to Church.

Church the description of Ptolemeem of the heavenly arch was accepted. According to Ptolemeju, the Sun, the Moon and planets rotate round the motionless Earth. When, making astronomical supervision, scientific have found out contradictions in system Ptolemeja, orbits of planets have been drawn in another way and have taken rather intricate form corresponding to the given theory. Nicolaus Copernicus it is clear that the Earth, and behind the Moon as trusted, crystal planetary sphere and the star heavenly arch, operated angels was object of corrections, were invariable and imperishable in the perfection. Somewhere behind them there was paradise and God.

Not all scientists divided the point of view of Ptolemeja, however during all period of the Middle Ages nobody challenged it. The first carefully developed alternative theory has been presented the Polish scientists Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) whom, being the cathedral canon, the life most part has devoted to scientific researches. Though hierarches of Catholic church opposed not all of new ideas, Kopernik understood that its conclusions can appear heretical. Therefore it did not hasten to publish the work "+с references heavenly ё¶хЁ" and, as speak, has seen its typographical copy only last day the life.

New shape of Installed

New shape of the Universe Kopernik has offered in a revolutionary way the new model of a universe cardinally differing from known at that point in time. He asserted that the Sun is the motionless center round which planets rotate, and that the Earth - one of these planets. The cycle time of our planet round the Sun is equal to year, besides, it rotates round own axis and makes a complete revolution for days. The scientist also believed that the Moon is not one of planets (as considered at that time), and the companion of the Earth. Kopernik has arranged the first planets in a correct order on degree of their remoteness from the Sun - Merkury as the nearest, and Saturn as the most distant (Uranium, the Neptune and Pluton then have not been opened yet). The new theory basically was correct, but in it there were also weak places. In particular, this system was almost same difficult, as well as ptolemeevskaja, mainly because Kopernik wrongly considered orbits of planets as circles.

Though in those days Kopernik's theory has not been definitively confirmed yet, the out-of-date picture of the world promptly fell. Considerable blow to erroneous representations has been put by the Danish astronomer to Silently Home-made beer (1546-1601) which in 1572 has noticed a supernew star - immeasurably far and very bright, - whose occurrence in "эхшчьхээюь" space behind the Moon it would be impossible. After some years to Home-made beer observed so improbable occurrence of a comet. As a result of scale and regular supervision the researcher has defined position of many heavenly bodies and has published the first modern catalogue of stars. Even more impressing and convincing data has been received by the Italian scientist Galileo Galileem (1564-1642).

To It has carried, as it already could use a technical innovation - the telescope invented in Holland approximately in 1600 Almost at once after reception in 1609 of news about its existence by Galilej was designed by much more perfect device for supervision over the sky. Its opening had huge value, since., In addition, Galilej has established existence of set of stars, not visible with the naked eye, stains on the Sun, craters on a surface of the Moon, companions of Jupiter and phases of Venus. Galilej used the opening for acknowledgement heliocentric (with the Sun in the center) Kopernik's theories. However the Church has sounded the alarm, as it threatened traditions and authority of the bible doctrine based exclusively on geotsentricheskoj (with the Earth in the center) to the theory. For example, Jesus Navin as it is told in the Bible, has stopped Sun movement on the sky, accordingly, the description Kopernik Solntsa as motionless object in space should be "ыюцэ№ь and ю°шсюёэ№ь" with what it also has been proclaimed in 1616.

the European sensation

Galilej The Pope has forbidden Galilee to defend Kopernik's sights, and the scientist has become silent for many long years. But gradually he has come to a conclusion that if will operate cautiously, the glory can protect it from Church prosecutions. In 1632 Galilej has published the treatise "-шрыюу about two pivotal systems ьшЁр" in which denied system Ptolemeja positions, however has kept visibility of that follows instructions of the daddy, having finished the book the statement that creations of hands Dominical actually are not cogitable the person.

However work Galilee has caused the sensational response in Europe, and its dodge has been exposed. It was ordered to 69-year-old scientist to be to Rome where it has appeared before court of inquisition and has been accused of heresy. Under the threat of the death sentence of Galilej recognised an error and declared repentance. On concepts of that time, punishment was soft enough: within the remained eight years of the life of Galilej was under house arrest.

Church Attempts to forbid Kopernik's theory have failed, as the book Galilee has been translated on many languages and became popular in all Europe. Moreover, the important certificate of justice of statements of Kopernik was given by German astronomer Johann Kepler (1571-1630) who in 1609-19 has opened three laws of movement of planets. Kopernik and Galilej considered that planets rotate round the Sun on a circular orbit. Kepler has defined that orbits of planets are elliptic and by that has eliminated errors of the predecessors. It has shown that the heliocentric theory is easier than system Ptolemeja, and also is free from its contradictions. Several years later Kepler has created Rudolfovy of the table with which help was possible to predict movement of planets in budushche; based on works to Silently Home-made beer, these opening have marked the beginning universal and matematicheski the exact description of Solar system.

Newton's Laws

Englishman Isaak Newton (1642-1727) was the greatest scientist after Galilee. Its work "¦р=хьр=шёхёъшх the beginnings natural ¶шыюёю¶шш" (1687) has convincingly shown that terrestrial and heavenly spheres submit to the same laws of the nature, and all material objects - to three laws of movement.

Moreover, Newton has formulated the law of universal gravitation and matematicheski has proved the laws operating these processes. Njutonova the Universe model remained actually invariable up to new scientific revolution of the beginning of the XX-th century in which basis Albert Einstein's works have laid down.

medicine Achievements

In connection with these opening the role of scientific researches has even more increased. As dogmatic views have disappeared also riddles more did not seem unsoluble, everything, including a body of the person and its illness became object of studying. Up to XVI century it was supposed that illness is a consequence of abnormal displacement of four liquid environments of an organism (blood, mokroty, yellow and black bile). The first the call of this theory was thrown by the Swiss alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541) who asserted that illnesses are connected with infringements of various bodies and can be cured by means of chemical preparations. Approximately the first careful anatomic research of the person has been spent to the same time by Andreas Vezaliem (1514-64). However bases of a modern medical science have been taken almost hundred years later when English scientist William Garvej (1578-1657) has opened that blood in a body of the person circulates on a vicious circle thanks to heart reductions, instead of a liver as believed earlier.

the Modern language

The New science tried to confirm justice of supervision by experiments and to translate results on universal mathematical language. Galilej the first of scientists asserted that "ъэшур the nature... It is written mathematical чэрърьш". Progress of a mathematical method was prompt. To the XVII-th century beginning the most usual arithmetic symbols (additions, subtraction, multiplication, division and equalities) were included into the universal use. Then in 1614 John Neper has entered logarithms into use. The first summarising car - the far ancestor of the computer - has been designed by Blezom Paskalem (1623-62) in 1640th years, and later 30 years great German philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm Lejbnits (1646-1716) has invented the car, capable to make multiplication. Lejbnits also was one of founders of the differential calculus which has become by the most important mathematical method of that time. To similar results irrespective of Lejbnitsa Isaak Newton has come also.


So, to a XVII-th century the science has really far promoted in the development. Besides a telescope, such devices, as a microscope, the thermometer, a barometre and the air pump have been invented.

Scientific achievements were constantly multiplied. Newton has opened the wave nature of light and has shown that the stream of light seeming to us white, consists of spectral colours into which it can be divided by means of a prism. William Gilbert (1544-1603) who have laid the foundation for studying of an electricity and magnetism, and Robert Guk (1635-1703) who has entered concept "ъых=ър" were two other well-known English experimenters; for that description that has seen through lenses of the microscope improved by it. Irish Robert Bojl (1627-91) has invented the vacuum pump and has formulated the law known today under the name of the law of Bojlja-Mariotta which establishes a parity between volume and pressure. And the Dutch scientist Hristian Gjujgens has invented a pendulum clock with the trigger mechanism, having proved correctness of a conclusion Galilee that the pendular device can be used for the control over time.

Spread of knowledge

At this time interest to a science was shown everywhere, and scientific knowledge was yet so specialised that any formed person could not make opening.

Scientific organisations, such as the London royal society Were created (it is founded in 1662) and the French royal Academy of sciences (1666), and were published the scientific magazines which have accelerated development of scientific progress. As a result of this "Ёхтюы¦чшш" in XVI-XVII centuries, the science became one of the brightest examples of successful cooperation for the good of the person.