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the Socialism

the Socialism as movement for the general property and equality was generated in the end of a XIX-th century and during the extremely rough history appeared in the most various forms.

In the history of mankind protests against oppression poor the rich time and again sounded. Quite often, without having taken out the fate, poor men rose, demanding more fair social order. As examples of such events country revolt of 1381 and performance serve in the British history so-called. levellerov ("ѕЁртэш=хыхщ") and diggers ("ъюяр=хыхщ") - radical parties of times of Cromwell and civil war of XVII century

In a society with a prevailing subsistence economy and agricultural population similar movements quickly exhausted, but with development of cities the city poor was generated, activity and which organisation were much above. Acknowledgement to that was the French revolution 1789-94, svergnuvshaja a monarchy and proclaimed republic.

The Dream of the perfect, fair and society equal in rights was not something new, but after success of revolution in France social reformers of any sense more than ever have felt earlier confidence that this dream can become a reality.

capitalism Contradictions

The Socialism was first of all reaction on changing shape of the world industrial revolution in XIX century, created not only earlier not a known society with factories and cars, railways and steamships, but also a class of the workers occupied on them living in promptly and randomly expanding cities.

Socialism Early, in many respects chaotic stages of industrial revolution have resulted in many ugly consequences: slums, a soot, unreliable, kalechashchie people of the car, callousness of employers, back-breaking toil of children should be evident. A class of capitalists (i.e. Owners of means of production - for example, factories and factories) has saved up huge riches, without having given any public blessings to the workers living, probably, not more poorly, but certainly it is much heavier, than earlier on a farm.

the Socialist doctrine

Many other thinkers did not trust in reforms and believed that defects of capitalism will disappear only with system cancellation as a whole: on change of a rigid competition where the weakest are obviously doomed, and to non-uniform distribution of riches the consensus and equality should come. In essence, this thesis, despite all divergences in interpretation and details, has laid down in a doctrine basis about a socialism. 3d . .

In first third XIX century such ideas were defended by Robert Ouen (1771-1858), the educated industrialist from the Wales, earlier created exemplary working conditions at the factories in Nju-Lanarke, and now aspiring to rally all British workers in uniform trade union which could paralyse a national economy a general strike, and then peacefully take the power in hand, to change a society on bases of the general work and prosperity. These plans were so naive, however and are grandiose, but they have outright frightened the mighty of this world - and those have gone on resolute counter-measures.

Terms "ёючшрышчь" and "ёючшрышё=шёхёъшщ" Ouen for the first time have used and its supporters in 1830-40th Almost at the same time this terminology has appeared and in France where, however, ideas have arisen slightly earlier. At their sources stood count Anri de Sen-Simon (1776-1825) trusting in a peace and rational political system at whom, considering influence of technical progress, over the people managers, and Charles Fure (1772-1837) preaching, in the spirit of Robert Ouena, a life in "¶рырэё=хЁр§" will supervise vysokoobrazovannye; - communities on the basis of self-management. In the further history of a socialism similar radical clashes of opinions were shown time and again, leading to sharp disputes and collisions between supporters of that workers should solve as it to live, and adherents of the doctrine about advantage of a professional management.

a communism Phantom

Socialism the future of the socialist doctrine as anybody have affected the works Charles Marx (1818-83) and its colleague Fridrih Engels (1820-95). In 1848 when national-liberation revolts shook different corners of Europe, two German philosophers have published the "-юььѕэшё=шёхёъшщ ьрэш¶хё=" proclaimed revolution to which can change a public and economic system in the world. Marx and Engels have seen wandering on Europe "яЁшчЁръ ъюььѕэшчьр" - and though this word for those times in all was conformable "ёючшрышчьѕ" the fact of its use as if called from words to revolutionary business. Nevertheless, influence "¦рэш¶хё=р" was short-term, revolutions of 1848 have ended with defeats, and Marx and Engels have emigrated to England. There Marx has written the most known work - "-ряш=ры" As well as many other political, economic, historical and philosophical researches.

The History on Marx is incessant struggle between public classes. In particular, economy development in the Middle Ages has led to growth of a class of bourgeoisie (capitalists) - merchants, usurers and manufacturers. In due course this class has felt force and has selected the power at feudal land owners. Marx foretold that during industrial development the working class (proletariat) so will get stronger that will dethrone a class of capitalists and will take the power in hand.

On Marx, it is possible only as a result of violent revolution. The won workers should establish for a while proletariat dictatorship - to a definitive victory of a world socialism. All means of production and distributions of material benefits will be under the control of workers. Then, when the socialism will bring general abundance, the society leaves on a new, higher stage of development, and at communism everyone will receive free of charge everything that it is necessary for it for satisfaction of requirements.

Though for many years revolutionary parties remained small, in 1864 Marx has created I Internatsional of workers for working-class movement coordination. Marx trusted in struggle for a socialism of proletarians of all countries: with the companions abroad they ostensibly had more than the general, than with capitalists at home.

the Commune of Paris

The First revolt of working class has occurred in 1848 - in France, a cradle of revolutions. Then, after defeat from Prussia in 1871, in France new, more serious revolt has flashed. Parisians declared the city an independent commune and some weeks have held on, reflecting approach of the governmental forces, having entered, at last, into a city, armies executed ten thousand the Communards who have become by the first martyrs for the sake of a socialism. By the way, from the point of view of ideology the Commune had with a socialism a little the general, but Marx joyfully welcomed it as the first step on a way to world revolution.

Collision of ideas

I Internatsional has broken up in 1870th after the sharpest debate between Marx and the Russian revolutionary Michael Bakunin (1814-76), one of anarchism founders. The theory of anarchists denied Marxs a sight at the state as on the tool of oppression which the proletariat should win from exploiters and turn against them. Anarchists wished to eliminate all forms of the government, believing that the people itself can manage all affairs. Denying the organisation and discipline the doctrine of anarchists has never won such influence what socialists had, but supporters of one of its directions of a steel on a violence and terror way, loudly having declared itself last decade XIX century murders of variety of top politicians, including the US president the Poppy-kinli.

In 1869 the social-democratic party of Germany has been based on Marxism principles, to it weights of followers were pulled. As consequence, almost all Marxist parties created in Europe towards the end of XIX century, have received the name social democratic.

National features

Nevertheless, in Britain and France the basic parties of socialist sense were not orthodoxly Marxist, in their development national features have got the best. In Britain interests of working class basically represented trade unions, and serious political successes worker managed to achieve only with the beginning of XX century after trade unions have merged with several associations of socialists in the uniform Labour party (being today one of two leading political parties of the country).

The Second Internatsional created in 1889, also has not avoided internal contentions: in the nineties separate German marksisty have acted with idea of revision of the doctrine of Marx in the light of the changed circumstances, the revolution prospect kept away, the fraction of social democrats typed weight in the German parliament, and many workers lived where better, than in old time, and was abundantly clear that will lift them on revolutionary struggle uneasy. It seemed that the socialism can get the best a peace, parliamentary way.

Nevertheless, inveterate marksisty have sharply fallen upon everything in what saw audit of the ideas, asserting that improvement of position of working class always has the limited and passing character, and that on bolshee the mighty of this world will not go never. The First World War (1914-18) has checked up on durability the doctrine about proletarian internationalism and has revealed its flaws: though II Internatsional accepted resolutions on necessity of joint struggle of socialists and all proletariat of the different countries against war twice, it nevertheless has inflamed, suddenly, having depreciated all beautiful slogans.

On war fire

Socialism Moreover, the beginnings right after of war socialist parties across all Europe in a patriotic feeling have adjoined the governments. It was the first sign on that the national feeling prevails over political views.

However, one party nevertheless has taken of a rigid Marxist position during war. The Russian Bolsheviks led by Vladimir Lenin (the name has occurred that they represented the majority in the Russian social-democratic party) resolutely have not supported conducting war by the country and in 1917 took in it the power. As a result the Russian empire became Soviet Union, and Bolsheviks, naming itself Communist party, within several years have suppressed all opposition, have established one-party proletarian dictatorship and have created rather rigid form of the state socialism.


Bolshevist revolution has caused split in the international numbers of supporters of a socialism. In many countries those to whom revolutionary dictatorship on Russian an armour has pleased, have departed from supporters of peace coming to power. Thirsting world revolutions henceforth called itself communists, and supporters of an evolutionary way and political, parliamentary struggle still remained socialists, social democrats, labourites etc. Everyone their these branches could leave an appreciable trace in the history of the XX-th century, and social democrats are today one of the most influential political forces in Europe.