In the middle of a XIX-th century the women who were considered throughout all history as beings of the lowest grade, have started to win the increasing legal rights and possibilities.
In various cultures and civilisations of the past of the woman occupied the most different position. In one they were no more than the property of the fathers and husbands, in others used considerable freedom, and their rights were protected by the law. But also then men possessed the much bigger rights and considered itself above women.
the First requirements
the First resolute requirement to balance women in the rights with men has sounded only in the end of XVIII century when the increased well-being and the general social progress have given the chance to some women to get education. The French revolution of 1789 has cleared radical ideas in many corners of Europe, and in England has inspired Mary Uolstonkraft on a writing classical "+сюёэютрэш the rights цхэЁшэ" (1792). In a XIX-th century radicalism pomalu has achieved many purposes. However to their number political and sexual equality of women, since did not belong. During the Victorian epoch the woman considered "фюсЁ№ь as an angel ьѕцёшэ№" taking away it a traditional role of the wife, mother and the keeper of a home.
But despite all restrictions, some women have started to achieve a recognition of the rights. Thanking it for all women a number of the important legal rights, including the rights to the juvenile children and the right to own the property has been recognised. And though doors of Oxford and Cambridge for them were still strong closed, they created own colleges. Elizabeth Blekuell in the USA and Elizabeth Garrett Anderson in Great Britain steels, having overcome all barriers, the diplomaed doctors.
During the Crimean war of Florens Najtingejl has transformed care of patients and wounded men into a trade demanding high qualification. The irony, however, was that while all these uncommon persons battled for the right to work (so, and means for freedom, independence and self-esteem), thousand women from poor layers worked in awful conditions on mines and factories only to survive. Here all were equal in poverty.
Women-reformers and men sympathising them were convinced that the suffrage - "suffrage" more and more; - has paramount value and serves as a key to the further progress. In the middle of a XIX-th century to Great Britain and the USA struggle campaigns for suffrages which have got a number of supporters have begun, but have not become successful almost in struggle against traditional sights of a society. Queen Victoria was one of the most ardent opponents of a vote for women in Great Britain.
Few free states from prejudices (New Zealand. Australia, Finland, Norway) have given to women a vote to the First World War. In other countries struggle accrued. It has got special dramatic nature in England where in 1903 the militant wing sufrazhistskogo movements led by Emmelinoj Pankherst was generated. These fighting ladies who named sufrazhistkami, broke political meetings
Also arrested itself to fencings. For refusal to pay the penalty them put in prison where they went on hunger strike and were exposed to violent feeding by severe enough methods.
the Armistice for the period of war
Furious struggle was in a heat when the First World War has burst. The majority sufrazhistok has immediately stopped the actions, and women have played an important role in strengthening of defence of the countries, having replaced with work of the men who have left on front. Their obvious professional skill has broken many arguments against political equality, and the British government has given to women the suffrage. To an example of Englishmen the USA and many other countries have followed. Prompt development of labour markets in sphere of service, formation and a clerical work in due course has begun, opening women access to new trades. But in it still paid less, than to the men, many traditionally man's trades for them have been closed, and in the higher echelons of a policy and their business still was insignificant a little.
In the mid-sixties in the USA Movement for the female rights was generated. It has found followers and in Europe, having received the general name "¶хьшэшчь". Movement drew attention of a society not only to equality questions, but also to such earlier ignored problems, as sexual violence over women and abortions. Feminists have managed to achieve acceptance of some laws favorable for women, especially in sphere of equal possibilities and an equal payment.
Meanwhile, in many countries of the world of the woman are still deprived the elementary rights, even is right to choose the husband independently. Culture and religion - we will recollect postulates of Catholic church and Islamic fundamentalism - too substantially complicate a situation. Abundantly clear that "цхэёъшщ тюяЁюё" definitively it is not solved yet.